Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing

Before Studding

“Ammonia Treatment” we have to know about the Pretreatments in textile processing…. Why we do Pre-Treatments? Pretreatment is the heart of processing of textile. Grey cloth after weaving is quite unattractive and contains numerous natural as well as added impurities which hinder the successful carrying out of subsequent step like dyeing, printing and finishing.

What are Pre-Treatments? In Pretreatment, all these impurities are removed and fabric is brought to a stage here it is more absorbent and white and can be easily processed further.

In other words Pretreatment process could be defined as procedures concerning about the removal of natural and added impurities in the fabric to an optimum level that can provide good whiteness and absorbency by utilizing minimum time, energy and chemicals as well as water.

Major steps involved in textile pretreatment are: De-sizing, Scouring, Bleaching and Mercerization or “Ammonia Treatment” In every step, different chemicals are involved which are: ?» Wetting Scoring Agents, ?» Sequestering Agents, ?» Mercerizing Agents or “Liquid Ammonia”, nd ?» Hydrogen Peroxide Stabilizers Pretreatment is important!!! 70% of problems during dyeing and finishing are caused by pretreatment.

Get quality help now
Sweet V
Sweet V
checked Verified writer

Proficient in: Agriculture

star star star star 4.9 (984)

“ Ok, let me say I’m extremely satisfy with the result while it was a last minute thing. I really enjoy the effort put in. ”

avatar avatar avatar
+84 relevant experts are online
Hire writer

Now… What is Mercerization? Mercerization is a method for processing cellulose fibers by alkalis.

This processing makes the inside of the fibers swell to exploit new fiber properties beyond their original feel or physical properties. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and ammonia (NH3) are used as the alkaline chemicals for mercerization.

Ammonia Mercerizing of cellulose fibers History

The use of ammonia in mercerization has been known since the 1930’s and was eveloped commercially for fabric processing around 1970 in what was originally known as the Tedesco process, which was subsequently acquired by the Sanforized company and made well-known as the Sanfor-Set process.

Get to Know The Price Estimate For Your Paper
Number of pages
Email Invalid email

By clicking “Check Writers’ Offers”, you agree to our terms of service and privacy policy. We’ll occasionally send you promo and account related email

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

You won’t be charged yet!

The fashion appeal of so-called “flat-finish” denim resulting from Japanese ammonia-finished denim that many companies substituted caustic-mercerized fabrics, often presenting them as ammonia finished.


By combining ammonia mercerization and Sanforizing in a single step shrinkage control is greatly improved in denim. In contrast to caustic mercerization, the fabric is ofter, semi-permanent press properties result and in the case of twill fabrics, there is less seam-puckering in garments, less leg- twist and edge-fraying.

Unlike caustic mercerization, the fabric is not degraded, avoiding a harsh hand even after multiple washings. The resistances to abrasion tear and tensile is significantly improved. The original process consisted of passing the fabric though a bath of liquid ammonia with 100% pickup for approximately 10 seconds. The ammonia was removed with dry heat applied by passing over blanketed, steam heated dry cans which removed about 90% f the ammonia which was then recovered by a recovery plant consisting of large, pressurized towers and made available for recycling.

The rest of the ammonia, which chemically bonded to the cellulose, was removed by light steaming.



The difference in effect as opposed to caustic mercerization is because with ammonia, there is less fiber-swelling, therefore the fibers are more pliable, which Additionally, unlike standard wet-finishing of denim, the ammonia penetrates completely into yarns and fibers, resulting in complete wetting, which is necessary for lasticizing the cotton for consistent shrinkage and elongation.

In garments that are fabricated from ammonia treated-fabrics, the garment life is longer after long periods of wear and repeated washings, improving sustainability.


The much smaller molecular size of ammonia allows it to penetrate completely into every fiber of the fabric, unlike caustic which causes such rapid fiber- swelling that the caustic is blocked at the surface of yarns, preventing further penetration. The surface tension of ammonia at 26 dynes/cm is a third that of caustic (NaOH). The ower surface tension overcomes the enormous resistance of air trapped in the fabric which is a characteristic of heavy cotton fabrics.

Additionally, at normal mercerization concentrations of caustic (23%/30 Baume), sodium hydroxide forms a hepta-hydrate with water (NaOH7H20), which results in a slow-moving, bulky group.

Permanent- press effects

The permanent-press effects are achieved without the use of cross-linking resins, however, the commonly-used resins are soluble in ammonia and a combination resin finish and mercerizing, plus Sanforizing can be achieved if a soluble catalyst is mployed. Additionally, ammonia acts as a formaldehyde-scavenger and resin- treated fabrics that are ammonia treated will produce no free-formaldehyde.


As a rule, fabric shrinkage depends on the time of exposure to the ammonia, with 80% of the shrinkage occurring in the initial 6 seconds. Very close control of final shrinkage is achieved by fabric tension in the ammonia application in combination with compressive shrinkage. By 1974, the primary application of ammonia mercerization was for treatment of heavy-weight cotton fabrics such as denim and orduroy, which are difficult to properly mercerize with traditional caustic treatments. The ammonia process was intended as a replacement for conventional mercerizing for both fabrics and in mercerizing sewing threads (Petrograd process).

Ammonia Recovery

The original ammonia recovery methods required a large capital investment which limited acceptance in the textile industry, however, a more recent design has adopted patented seals that totally isolates the dry and steam process sections in order to avoid ammonia from coming into contact with water and air subsequently liminating the need for an expensive distillation and recovery operation. Furthermore the seals also isolate the machine from the outside environment so that there are absolutely no ammonia odors in the room where the equipment is operating.

This unit also does not employ a felt calendar, which can also transfer allowing denim to be processed on the same machine without contamination of non- denim fabrics as well as reducing the problem of back staining with denim that occurs in caustic mercerization, since no water is required for washing.. All the imited residues of non-recyclable ammonia are completely neutralized and can be safely sent to the water treatment plant, so together with the significant reduction in water usage, this newer ammonia process can actually be considered environmentally friendlier than conventional caustic mercerization.

Dry-crease recovery

Ammonia- mercerization provides a higher dry-crease recovery and higher shrinkage consistency than caustic mercerization, especially with the dry-steam method of recovery. However, caustic mercerization still has an advantage with regard to luster nd improved depth of color in dyeing, although the uniformity of dyeing after mercerization is significantly improved with ammonia. Ammonia treatment results in a more rounded cotton fiber, which scatters light more, in turn resulting in a luster that is less bright.

An additional advantage of ammonia mercerization is the absence of alkaline oxy-cellulose that results with caustic treatments, which is evidenced by strength-losses and dyeing variation. The lower pH of ammonia allows safe treatment of more sensitive fibers like linen (flax) or silk. With caustic treatments of fabrics like enim, the elimination of washing required in caustic mercerization avoids the problems with removing caustic. Mercerizes are not normally equipped with drum washers for removal of caustic from heavy cotton fabrics and contamination remains on the fabric at the time of drying which results in damage to cotton.

The use of acetic acid to neutralize creates a problem with the formation of sodium acetate, which produces a very harsh feel. The ammonia process on denims also produces a much flatter, richer appearance and improves the performance on stretch denim improving fit.

Tension control

Tension control is important in both ammonia and caustic mercerization for improved fabric tenacity and elongation. Moisture regain is improved in both if tension is applied prior to fiber swelling.

Cite this page

Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing. (2018, Nov 06). Retrieved from

Ammonia Treatment in Textile Processing
Live chat  with support 24/7

👋 Hi! I’m your smart assistant Amy!

Don’t know where to start? Type your requirements and I’ll connect you to an academic expert within 3 minutes.

get help with your assignment