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American Civil War

secession
to withdraw or separate from a political state
secession

Union
consisted of 23 states located mostly to the north and west who opposed secession from the United States
Union

Confederate States of America
consisted of 11 states that supported states’ rights and the practice of slavery and who seceded from the United States

border states
consisted of slave states that remained in the Union
border states

West Virginia
new state formed from the western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union
West Virginia

Abraham Lincoln
president of the United States who opposed the spread of slavery and was determined to preserve the Union, by force if necessary

Ulysses Grant
general of the Union forces who defeated Robert E. Lee’s confederate army
Ulysses Grant

Jefferson Davis
president of the Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis

Robert E. Lee
Confederate commander of the Army of Northern Virginia, offered command of Union forces at the beginning of the war, but chose not to fight against Virginia
Robert E. Lee

Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
a skilled Confederate general from Virginia who died after being accidentally shot by Confederate soldiers
Thomas

Frederick Douglass
escaped slave who became an abolitionist and advocated for African American soldiers in the Union military

Clara Barton
a nurse during the Civil War, after the war she helped found the American Red Cross
Clara Barton

Robert Smalls
African American sailor who escaped to the north with a confederate boat and became a Union naval captain who was honored for feats of bravery – became a Congressman after the war
Robert Smalls

Fort Sumter, SC
artillery fire here began the Civil War
Fort Sumter, SC

Manassas (Bull Run), VA
location of the first major battle of the Civil War
Manassas (Bull Run), VA

Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln, this document made “freeing the slaves” the new focus of the Civil War
Emancipation Proclamation

Vicksburg, MS
by taking this city, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River and divided the Confederacy
Vicksburg, MS

Gettysburg, PA
turning point of the Civil War, Union forces repel Lee’s invasion of the North after gaining control of the high ground of the battlefield
Gettysburg, PA

Appomattox Court House, VA
Lee’s surrender to Grant here marked the end of the Civil War
Appomattox Court House, VA

blockade
the Union Navy was used to stop people and materials from leaving or entering Confederate port cities such as Savannah, Charleston, or New Orleans
blockade

Richmond, VA
many battles occurred in Virginia as Union forces repeatedly attempted to capture this capital of the Confederate States of America
Richmond, VA

women
with men away while serving in the armed forces, they ran farms and plantations in the South and businesses in the North

disease
a major killer of soldiers in the Civil War

African American soldiers
discriminated against and forced to serve in segregated units under the command of white officers, these men served in the Confederate military, but many more served in the Union military, especially after the Emancipation Proclamation
African American soldiers

Gettysburg Address
written by Abraham Lincoln, said the Civil War was being fought to preserve a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.”
Gettysburg Address

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