Calvin et al (1987) proposed a more selfish view of helping, stressing that people help others to avoid feeling sad (a negative state) and because it makes them feel good about themselves. This is called the Negative State Relief (NSR) model. It doesn’t matter whether the negative affect (mood) is caused by witnessing the distress of the victim or whether the helper was already in bad mood. Either way, you help to improve your own mood. Adults may internalise the reward of doing good….. Therefore, adults in a bad mood may help in order to alleviate their negative state.
However if people can relieve their negative mood through some other source (such as hearing a good joke or getting some money) then they do not need to help. Effect of Mood Enhancement (EME) study A variation on Batson’s research was carried. Those participants in the high empathy group (i. e. those who shared in the same opinions as Elaine or Charlie) were offered some cash during the experiment. Accordingly, they helped less-their negative state at seeing Elaine or Charlie suffer was diminished by the cash.
The reduction of their negative state in this was meant that they didn’t have to help reduce their negative feelings (conclusion). It’s been found in numerous studies that being in a good mood results in more pro-social behaviour. Research have found people to be more helpful after listening to comedy, smelling pleasant odours, after finding money or by going outside on sunny days (Boron and Byrne,199……. ). However if people feel their good mood will be affected by helping then they are more likely to not help and walk. Artificial studies: all lab studies are extremely artificial and lack ecological validity.
Behaviour in the real world is subject to many other factors, such as social and cultural influences on behaviour – none of which are explored in these lab settings. Therefore it is difficult to generalise lab findings to a wider context. People have criticised Cialdini et al for proposing to negative a view of human behaviour. However the selfish view of human behaviour might be right. ) Helping does help negative state: it’s not in dispute those helping others/ another person in need does lead to an improved mood for the helper. So it has face validity.