Alternative Culture Medium for Fungi Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 9 January 2017

Alternative Culture Medium for Fungi

Scope and Delimitation

This study is focused on how to produce ointment out of banana and papaya fruit peelings extract to help avoiding fungal infections. It must be done within a laboratory. The place must be conducive for only a matter of years. This study builds upon on how to lessen fungal infection. We only used 200g of chopped fruit peels (banana and papaya), 1.5 distilled water, 3 gulaman bars and etc. This product efficiency must estimate three trials having three replication each. After three trials that the study is not proved, it will be considered failure. The paper covers five important chapters namely: the problem and its background, theoretical concept, methodology, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data and summary, conclusion and recommendation that will explain further this study. This product diminishing fungal infection concluded that it must be solve first the basic reason for the occurrence of fungal infections produced by the combination of chemicals. These chemicals are studied to produce bad effects to the consumers of this product and may lead to allergy when it is not resolved for longer time.

Chapter II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Review of related Literature

Studies conducted by different researches were proved to support this investigatory project. Naomi (2012), when I was a child I suffered with mild eczema. It slowly diminished, but as an adult I still have sensitive skin which is prone to developing dry areas. As a result, looking after my skin is very important to me and I am constantly on the lookout for new skincare products which may be suited to my troublesome skin. One such product that I recently discovered is the cult beauty classic, Papaya (or pawpaw) Ointment. PURE’s Papaya Ointment has become a must-have in Australia, where it originates from, and is becoming increasingly popular in the UK and Europe because of its skin healing properties. The science behind the sauce is this… The papaya fruit which this ointment contains is extremely rich in nutrients, and due to its anti-inflammatory properties has been used throughout Australian history to treat skin complaints.

The skin’s pH naturally sits at a lightly acidic 5.5 (known as the skin’s acid mantle), but this can be made more alkaline by shower gels and soaps, which in turn can irritate the skin. Papaya ointment helps to hydrate the skin and bring the pH level back down to an appropriate level, using the probiotics that are used to ferment the papaya before it is made into ointment. PURE Papaya Ointment is petrochemical-free and contains only natural ingredients, so there’s nothing nasty and chemically in it to cause any irritation. All the ingredients are carefully chosen for their beneficial properties too. For instance, Shea Butter, Jojoba Oil and Macadamia Oil are intensely moisturizing and nourishing, Calendula is anti-fungal which helps to prevent some skin diseases, Vitamin E helps to heal and protect the skin and Beeswax is insoluble in water so forms a protective barrier on the skin. Because of its healing properties and because it is so nourishing, PURE Papaya Ointment has an endless list of uses.

I have been using it for weeks now, and I have found it to be invaluably versatile. The backs of my hands are naturally very dry, which is only made worse by hot showers and using cleaning products, which often cause the skin to crack. Using the ointment as a moisturizer has softened the skin on my hands and has stopped them chapping, which I am so, so happy about. I’ve also been massaging it into my cuticles on a regular basis to condition them, which has made my nails look a lot better. I used it to calm an insect bite last week too, and as a lip balm when I accidentally bit my lip and made it sore. PURE also state that the ointment can be used to soothe nappy rash, sun burn or weather-irritated skin, to moisten sore nipples caused by breastfeeding, to soften calluses, as skin protection by runners or hill-walkers, to soothe skin after shaving or epilating, as a natural hair styling wax and much more.

The product is also very popular with make-up artists, who use it as a base for make-up and on the lips of models as, because it doesn’t contain petroleum jelly, it doesn’t melt or sweat under hot lights. PURE sell three different sized containers of Papaya Ointment, which can also be bought in bundles. The 25g squeezy tube pictured costs £9.99 and is the perfect size to carry with you in your handbag. For £19.99 you can get a large 100g tube, or for £35.99 there’s a 200g jar of ointment available, both of which are a great size for the bathroom cabinet or for use by make-up artists. If you want to try PURE Papaya Ointment for yourself, visit the PURE Papaya website here. After featuring in their Must Haves Beauty Kit, PURE recently teamed up with BeTrousse to offer a 20% discount on their products.

The Difficulties of fruit dealers, it’s not different from other market dealers in a certain way. Commonly, problem occurs when delivering it results of disadvantages. For example, traffic, road constructions, and even weather disturbances. All of these are stated here in the review for the fact that these can be a reason of fruit spoilage. Choosing an appropriate fruit shouldn’t be lost here either. Fruits commonly seen in the market would be like apple, banana, oranges, mango, and any other fruits. And I say banana would easy to be eaten. The banana plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. The plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy and are often mistaken for trees, but their main or upright stem is actually a pseudo stem that grows 6 to 7.6 meters (20 to 24.9 ft.) tall, growing from a corm. Banana is a staple starch for many tropical populations. The flesh can vary in texture from firm to mushy. Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked. Bananas’ flavor is due, amongst other chemicals, to isoamyl acetate which is one of the main constituents of banana oil.

Banana hearts are used as vegetables in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, either raw or steamed with dips or cooked in soups, curries and fried foods. The flavor resembles that of artichoke. As with artichokes, both the fleshy part of the bracts and the heart are edible. Banana leaves are large, flexible, and waterproof. They are often used as ecologically friendly disposable food containers or as “plates” in South Asia and several Southeast Asian countries and may be also used as umbrellas when the pseudo stems are tied together to form a floatation device only in regions where banana grows. The tender core of the banana plant’s trunk is also used in South Asian and Southeast Asian cuisine, and notably in the Burmese dish mohinga (rice noodles in fish soup) Banana peel may also have capability to extract heavy metal contamination from river water, similar to other purification materials. (Most of it is taken from Wikipedia)

Papaya with the scientific name, Carica papaya is a common fruit to be found in tropical countries. It is a succulent fruit of the family Caricaceas. Papayas are usually grown from seed. Their development is rapid, fruit being produced before the end of the first year. Under favorable conditions, a papaya plant may live for five years or more. Papaya is oval in shape and the colour of the skin is green if unripe. It will turn to green yellowish when it is ripe. The flesh of papaya is white before maturity, turns to a rich orange-yellow or deep rose when ripe, with colour varying according to variety. Papaya fruit is sweet in taste, with an agreeable musky tang, which is more pronounced in some varieties and in some climates than in others. Papaya has been regarded as one of the most valuable tropical fruits that contains many biological active compounds.

Filamentous fungi of 84 genera, represented by 234 species, were isolated in the period 1919–1977, from such library materials as books, paper, parchment, feather, textiles, animal and vegetable glues, inks, wax seals, moving pictures, magnetic tapes, microfilms, black and white photographs, papyrus, wood, and synthetic materials (in books). Thirty-four genera of fungi have been isolated in the air of three archives in Warsaw, Poland. Most of these have also been found in library materials. Based on 219 isolations from library materials, a list of 40 species of filamentous fungi has been provided for those species isolated with a frequency of three times or more.

Despite 80 years of investigations into the microbiology of library materials there is still a substantial lack of information on fungi colonizing library materials in North and South America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Among the 84 genera and 234 species of filamentous fungi, 19% may be a source of different diseases caused by mycotoxins. So far though, nobody has labelled libraries ‘sick’ buildings. In addition, culture collections do not seem to acquire or retain strains isolated from library materials (e.g. IMI in Egham, UK, retains over 16 500 strains, yet none of these strains are isolated from library materials). Review of related Studies

Moore-Landecker (1998), studied the fungi of mycology. At various points throughout history, fungi have been considered to be either plants or animals. It was finally concluded that fungi are neither plants nor animals, but are a distinct group. Fungi are now considered one of the five kingdoms into which all living organisms are classified. Fungi have a unique cellular structure and an unusual pattern of sexual reproduction. They may be single-celled or multicelled organisms (the great majority are multicelled), in which each cell contains a nucleus. Examples of fungi include puffballs, mushrooms, yeasts, and molds. Fungi have an unusual cellular structure in that the nuclei stream between cells, making it appear as if the cells have multiple nuclei. This cellular structure, along with their unique method of reproducing by forming spores, distinguishes the fungi from all other organisms. Fungi are heterotrophs, meaning they cannot produce their own food from inorganic matter (not derived from living organisms). Fungi secrete enzymes that breakdown organic matter (derived from living organisms) outside their bodies.

Their cells then absorb the products. The digestive activities of fungi are essential in the decomposition (breakdown) of organic material and the cycling of nutrients in nature. Some fungi, called saprobes, obtain nutrients from nonliving organic matter. Other fungi are parasites, meaning they obtain nutrients from the tissues of living host organisms. Toe jam (2007), studied that some Fungi cause a number of human, plant, and animal diseases, while the others provide numerous drugs (such as penicillin and other antibiotics), foods (e.g., various Mushrooms, Truffles and Morels, and various Yeasts which are used in bread, champagne, and beer). Other common Fungi are rusts, smuts, puffballs, molds, many Ascomycetes such as the agents of Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight. However, many other fungi are biotrophs, and in this role a number of successful groups form symbiotic associations with plants (including algae), animals (especially arthropods), and prokaryotes.

Examples are lichens, mycorrhizae, and leaf and stem endophytes. Among the other well-known associations are fungal parasites of animals. Humans, for example, may succumb to diseases caused by Pneumocystis (a type of pneumonia that affects individuals with supressed immune systems), Coccidioides (valley fever), Ajellomyces (blastomycosis and histoplasmosis), and Cryptococcus. Lichens (1887), studied that some of the fungi familiar to people are used in fermentation, such as Saccharomyces sp., which can be used to make bread or wine and only can be seen with microscope. Some members of order Mucorales (Zygomycota) are used to make fermented soy beans. Rhizopus sp. that grows on old bread are also members of Zygomycota. Penicillin, widely used in medicine, is made from Penicillium sp., a member of Mitosporic fungi. Many edible fungi, such as Lentinusedodes (Berk.), Agaricus bisporus and auricularia, are members of Basidiomycota.

In addition to their use as food and medicine, fungi are also important players in nature. Many fungi, such as wood-rotting fungi and Piloboous sp., participate in the decomposition process of bio remains or organic matters, accelerating the cycle and use of natural substances. Some fungi are parasitic and may cause diseases. For example, cordyceps sinensis is the host insect of Cordyceps sp. Ganoderma sp. lives on trees parasitically and causes damage to them. Many fungi form mutually-beneficial symbiotic relations with other life forms. For instance, lichens, commonly seen in the forests or woods, are symbiotic life forms consisting of fungi and algae. Root systems of a vast majority of seed plants and members of Endogonaceae may form endomycorrhiza relationship, which enhances the ability of plants to absorb nutrients from the soil. Many species of fungi form ectomycorrhiza relationship with plants. In short, fungi of various kinds play an important role in both natural ecosystems and our daily life. However, our knowledge of them is still quite limited.

The book introduces members of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota in the hope that the general public can know more about them and more students can be inspired to join the research work of this biological field. Gauthier (2003), according to her that the children, especially during the summer time when they spend a lot of time outdoors, can often get scrapes on their knees and elbows. Carpet burns from sitting on the ground too long can also occur. Instead of using a commercially-sold ointment from the pharmacy, use a banana peel to alleviate the pain from the scrape and promote healing. Cut a small portion of the banana peel and rub the inside of the peel against the scrape or carpet burn. The inside of the banana peel acts as ointment to help heal the wound. Bobby Gene (1998), conducted an extract composition derived from the peel of a banana and the method for producing the extract composition. An aqueous solvent is combined with the peel of a banana. If the banana is unripe, a base is also added. The mixture is homogenized and allowed to react at least until a black supernatant appears.

The entire slurry is filtered. The resulting extract is used alone or combined with a cream or ointment. Medicinal benefits of the extract include relief from pain, swelling, itching, bruising, wrinkles, and sunburn. Boyle (2003), studied that people can use papaya ointment to help sterilize and heal rashes, burns, and open cuts. It is also popular for treating dry skin, eczema, and other skin irritations. Some individuals find that it works to reduce skin blemishes, pimples, and acne. Basically, it can be used on any skin condition for which a person might otherwise apply another type of commercial antibiotic. It is also available as a lip balm to treat cracked, chapped, or peeling lips. To make papaya ointment, manufacturers ferment the fruit of the pawpaw and typically combine it with other stabilizing ingredients, such as petroleum jelly and preservatives. The thick, pale-yellow gel that is produced has a vague, sour odor. Some manufacturers combine the papaya ointment with other ingredients to enhance its skin-softening and healing properties and mask the unpleasant smell.

For instance, coconut oil, aloe, or honey might be combined with pawpaw extract to create a product that encompasses the benefits of each while having a pleasant fragrance. Some individuals prefer a purer form of papaya ointment, and some retailers sell all-natural products containing no added preservatives or other ingredients. For those seeking the purest approach, the moist underside of the peel from a raw papaya actually contains a sticky substance that many claim has all the benefits of manufactured lotions.

If a person is lucky enough to have regular access to pawpaw fruit, he or she can take advantage of the healing benefits by rubbing the peel directly onto the problem skin areas. As a caveat, some people might have a sensitivity to papaya or the ingredients used in the manufacture of papaya ointment. In that event, using the salve could actually cause additional, more serious skin irritation. Further, there is some evidence that papaya, especially when not completely ripened, could affect a woman’s ability to become pregnant. Consequently, individuals who are trying to become pregnant are advised against usingpapaya ointment.

According to Hawks worth (1992), there are approximate a little 1.5 million described species of fungi. A little more than 400 of these species are known to cause disease in animals, and far fewer of these species will specifically cause disease in people. Many of the latter will only be superficial types of diseases that are more of a cosmetic than a health problem. Thus, there are not many species of fungi that are pathogenic to human that will be fatal. The study of Fungi as animal and human pathogens is medical mycology. There is also such a thing as veterinary mycology, but the types of diseases that are found in your pets often are the same as those that are found in people. Because of the rarity of human diseases caused by Fungi, most people have little, if any, knowledge of such diseases.

The diseases of warm-blooded animals caused by fungi are known as mycoses. Although such diseases are relatively few, the fungi that cause them have a wide host as well as geographical range. Most of these diseases are not fatal, but once contracted; they may forever be a source of constant irritation and can lead to permanent scaring, which is why they are not such a pretty sight to view. The successful treatment of fungal diseases is more difficult than those caused by bacteria.

Because bacteria are prokaryotes, the makeup of their cells are very different than our own eukaryotic cells and pharmaceutical products, such as antibiotics, are able to successfully destroy bacteria without harming our cells, tissues and organs. However, because fungi are eukaryotes, finding a treatment that will kill the fungus and not harm our own cells is more difficult. Thus, most chemical treatments are also toxic us as well as the fungus. The most widely used drug for treating systemic mycosis and other fungal infections that do not respond to other drugs is Amphotericin B. Azole drugs are also widely used, but these only inhibited fungal growth and do not kill the fungus.

Conceptual Framework

Hypothesis

a.) Both Banana and papaya peels extract would be an alternative culture medium for fungi. b.) Only the banana peel extract will be the alternative culture medium for fungi c.) Only the papaya peel extract would be an alternative culture medium for fungi d.) Both banana and papaya peels extract will not be an alternative culture medium for fungi.

Definition of Variables

a.) Banana

Bananas are the most popular fruit in the world. Members of the genus Musa (part of the family Musaceae), they are considered to be derived from the wild species Musa acuminata (AA) and Musa balbisiana (BB). It is believed that there are almost 1000 varieties of bananas in the world, subdivided in 50 groups.

b.) Papaya

Papaya is a luscious fruit that has been taken for granted. Papaya fruits are good sources of Vitamin A, B and C. It is a familiar meat tenderizer because for clearing fruit juices, on fermenting liquors, pre-shrinking the quality of wool and as soap for washing clothes. Papaya possesses medicinal values.

c.) Fungi

Fungi constitute one of the life kingdoms. Fungi are eukaryotic (eu=true; karyon=nucleus) organisms with a cell wall like plants, but they do not have chlorophyll. Fungi are not able to ingest their food like animals do, nor can they manufacture their own food the way plants do. Instead, fungi feed by absorption of nutrients from the surrounding environment. They accomplish this by growing through and within the substrate on which they are feeding.

d.) Extract

To withdraw (as a juice or fraction) by physical or chemical process or to treat with a solvent so as to remove a soluble substance.

e.) Feasibility

Capable of being used or dealt with successfully

f.) Experiment

An operation or procedure carried out under controlled conditions in order to discover an unknown effect or law, to test or establish a hypothesis, or to illustrate a known law

g.) Potato dextrose agar

Potato dextrose agar (BAM Media M127) is common microbiological growth media[->0] made from potato[->1] infusion[->2], and dextrose[->3]. Potato dextrose agar (abbreviated “PDA”) is the most widely used medium for growing fungi and bacteria which attack living plants or decaying dead plant matter. Potato Dextrose Agar is a nutrient rich media that mycelia thrive upon.

h.) Fruit peels

Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit[->4] or vegetable[->5] which could be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical[->6] exocarp[->7], but the term exocarp does also include the hard cases of nuts[->8], which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but rather shells because of their hardness. i.) Autoclave a device for sterilizing implements using steam at high temperature.

Conceptual Framework

Hypothesis
a.) Both banana and papaya peels extract would be an alternative culture medium for fungi. b.) Only banana peel extract will be an alternative culture medium for fungi. c.) Only papaya peel extract would be an alternative culture medium for fungi.

Definition of Variables

Banana

The banana plant is the largest herbaceous[->9] flowering plant. The plants are normally tall and fairly sturdy and are often mistaken for trees[->10], but their main or upright stem is actually apseudostem[->11] that grows 6 to 7.6 metres (20 to 24.9 ft.) tall, growing from a corm[->12]. Each pseudo stem can produce a single bunch of bananas. After fruiting, the pseudo stem dies, but offshoots may develop from the base of the plant. Many varieties of bananas are perennial Papaya

The papaya is a large, tree[->13]-like plant[->14], with a single stem[->15] growing from 5 to 10 m (16 to 33 ft.) tall, with spirally arranged leaves[->16] confined to the top of the trunk[->17]. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred[->18] where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50–70 cm (20–28 in) in diameter[->19], deeply palmately[->20] lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioeciously[->21]. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria[->22], but are much smaller and wax[->23]-like. They appear on the axils[->24] of the leaves, maturing into large fruit – 15–45 cm (5.9–18 in) long and 10–30 cm (3.9–12 in) in diameter. The fruit is ripe[->25] when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained amber to orange hue.

Fungi

A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic[->26] organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts[->27] and molds[->28] as well as the more familiar mushrooms[->29]. These organisms are classified as a kingdom[->30], Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria[->31]. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls[->32] that contain chitin[->33], unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose[->34].

These and other differences show that the fungi form a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), that share a common ancestor[->35] (a monophyletic group). This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similarmyxomycetes[->36] (slime molds) and omycetes[->37] (water molds). The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology[->38], which is often regarded as a branch of botany[->39], even though genetic studies have shown that fungi are more closely related to animals than to plants. Potato dextrose agar

Potato dextrose agar (BAM Media M127) and potato dextrose broth are common microbiological growth media[->40] made from potato[->41] infusion[->42], and dextrose[->43]. Potato dextrose agar (abbreviated “PDA”) is the most widely used medium for growing fungi and bacteria which attack living plants or decaying dead plant matter.

Gulaman

The gulaman jelly bars are used in the various Filipino refreshments or desserts such assago at gulaman (or gulaman at sago, commonly shortened to
sago’t gulaman), buko pandan, agar flan, halo-halo[->44], different varieties of Filipino fruit salads, black gulaman, and red gulaman.

CHAPTER II

THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Review of related literature

Studies conducted by different researches were proved to support this investigatory project. Fungi exist primarily as filamentous dikaryotic organisms. As part of their life cycle, fungi produce spores. In this electron micrograph of a mushroom gill, the four spores produced by meiosis (seen in the center of this picture) are carried on a club like sporangium (visible to the left and right). From these spores, haploid hyphae grow and ramify, and may give rise to asexual sporangia, special hyphae which produce spores without meiosis. The sexual phase is begun when haploid hyphae from two different fungal organisms meet and fuse. When this occurs, the cytoplasm from the two cells fuses, but the nuclei remain separate and distinct. The single hypha produced by fusion typically has two nuclei per “cell”, and is known as a dikaryon, meaning “two nuclei”. The dikaryon may live and grow for years, and some are thought to be many centuries old.

Eventually, the dikaryon forms sexual sporangia in which the nuclei fuse into one, which then undergoes meiosis to form haploid spores, and the cycle, is repeated. Some fungi, especially the chytrids[->45] and zygomycetes, have a life cycle more like that found in many protists[->46]. The organism is haploid, and has no diploid phase, except for the sexual sporangium. A number of fungi have lost the capacity for sexual reproduction, and reproduce by asexual spores or by vegetative growth only. These fungi are referred to as Fungi Imperfecti, and include, among other members, the athlete’s foot and the fungus in bleu cheese. Other fungi, such as the yeasts, primarily reproduce through asexual fission, or by fragmentation — breaking apart, with each of the pieces growing into a new organism. Fungi are heterotrophic.

Fungi are not able to ingest their food like animals do, nor can they manufacture their own food the way plants do. Instead, fungi feed by absorption of nutrients from the environment around them. They accomplish this by growing through and within the substrate on which they are feeding. Numerous hyphae network through the wood, cheese, soil, or flesh from which they are growing. The hyphae secrete digestive enzymes which break down the substrate, making it easier for the fungus to absorb the nutrients which the substrate contains. This filamentous growth means that the fungus is in intimate contact with its surroundings; it has a very large surface area compared to its volume. While this makes diffusion of nutrients into the hyphae easier, it also makes the fungus susceptible to desiccation and ion imbalance. But usually this is not a problem, since the fungus is growing within a moist substrate. Most fungi are saprophytes, feeding on dead or decaying material.

This helps to remove leaf litter and other debris that would otherwise accumulate on the ground. Nutrients absorbed by the fungus then become available for other organisms which may eat fungi. A very few fungi actively capture prey, such as Arthrobotrys which snares nematodes on which it feeds. Many fungi are parasitic, feeding on living organisms without killing them. Ergot, corn smut, Dutch elm disease, and ringworm are all diseases caused by parasitic fungi. Mycorrhizae are a symbiotic relationship between fungi and plants. Most plants[->47] rely on a symbiotic fungus to aid them in acquiring water and nutrients from the soil. The specialized roots which the plants grow and the fungus which inhabits them are together known as mycorrhizae, or “fungal roots”. The fungus, with its large surface area, is able to soak up water and nutrients over a large area and provide them to the plant. In return, the plant provides energy-rich sugars manufactured through photosynthesis.

Examples of mycorrhizal fungi include truffles and Auricular IA, the mushroom which flavors sweet-and-sour soup. In some cases, such as the vanilla orchid[->48] and many other orchids, the young plant cannot establish itself at all without the aid of its fungal partner. In liverworts, mosses, lycophytes[->49], ferns, conifers, and flowering plants[->50], fungi form a symbiotic relationship with the plant. Because mycorrhizal associations are found in so many plants, it is thought that they may have been an essential element in the transition of plants onto the land. Fungi are classified within their own kingdom – The Kingdom Fungi, while some are in The Kingdom Protista. A fungus is neither a plant nor an animal. It is similar to a plant, but it has no chlorophyll and cannot make its own food like a plant can through photosynthesis.

They get their food by absorbing nutrients from their surroundings. Kingdom Fungi includes mushrooms, rusts, smuts, puffballs, truffles, morels, molds, and yeasts, and thousands of other organisms and microorganisms. They range from microscopic single-celled organisms, such as yeast, to gigantic multicellular organisms. Many fungi play a crucial role in decomposition (breaking things down) and returning nutrients to the soil. They are also used in medicine, an example is the antibiotic[->51] penicillin, as well as in industry and food preparation.

For a long time fungi were classified as plants, mainly because of their similar lifestyles – both are seen to grow in soil and are sessile (permanently attached; not moving). Plant and fungal cells both have a cell wall, while cells from the animal kingdom don’t. Fungi are thought to have diverged from the plant and animal kingdoms about one billion years ago. Mycology is the study of fungi – it is a branch of biology. A mycologist studies fungi’s genes, biochemical properties, their use to us as a source of food, their hallucinogenic, poisonous and pathogenic (ability to cause disease) properties. It was not until the 16th century, when the microscope was developed, that mycology became a well-established science.

Review of related Studies

Brendan (1986), conducted an extract composition derived from the peel of a banana and the method for producing the extract composition. An aqueous solvent is combined with the peel of a banana. If the banana is unripe, a base is also added. The mixture is homogenized and allowed to react at least until a black supernatant appears. The entire slurry is filtered. The resulting extract is used alone or combined with a cream or ointment. Medicinal benefits of the extract include relief from pain, swelling, itching, bruising, wrinkles, and sunburn.

Hudson (1988), studied that papaya is a fruit that contains precious enzymes like chymopapain and papain that assist our digestion process. The enzymes specifically help to convert proteins from the food that we consume into amino acids. Recent research has shown how amino acids act as a key agent in various processes concerning our physical and mental health,including chemical reactions that take place in our bodies. As we grow older the production of digestive enzymes slows within our pancreas and stomach, and this causes the digestion of protein to become less effective. The result is an excess of undigested proteins that help fight the growth of the harmful bacteria within the gastrointestinal system and the absence of important amino acids that facilitate all vital chemical reactions. In order to maintain good health, it is absolutely essential to retain quality protein. The enzymes in papaya play a crucial role in this process. Proteolytic enzymes such as papain digest non-living or inert proteins. Intestinal parasites are attacked and killed by papain as these parasites are made of protein.

Research is being conducted in relation to the use of papain for relieving the side effects of cancer therapy. It is known to effectively ease side effects such as mouth sores and problems with swallowing following chemotherapy and radiation sessions. It prepares our body to fight cancer and strengthens our immune system as well. Fermented papaya enzymes are used by an Australian company known as Rochway to create a product called papaya35. This product is made out of organically grown papaya. Their probiotic papaya mixture has antioxidant properties that strongly resist harmful molecules in our bodies. Cancer, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and diabetes are all caused by these same harmful molecules. Numerous studies are being carried out on the benefits of papaya, and new benefits are being added to a long list. If you are interested in the current studies being conducted you can find more information at PubMed.gov.

You’re likely to come across a useful papaya ointment if you search the market or alternatively, you can consume fresh papaya fruit. If you are seeking the therapeutic effects of consuming papaya, you may take note that ripe papaya contains chymopapain and papain (proteolytic enzymes) in lesser amounts than green papaya (as it has not ripened at this point). Strakosch 1943 experimental studies on the penetration of the following substances: lard, cod liver oil, olive oil, petrolatum, vaseline (Chesebrough), lanolin, petrolatum and lanolin to equal parts, “Aquaphor” (Duke), petrolatum plus five per cent cetyl alcohol, a base consisting of mannide monooleate-ceresin wax-petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin, “Hydrosorb” (Abbott), rose water ointment USP., lecithin ointment, a base consisting of stearyl alcohol-mineral oil-water-petrolatum and a base consisting of liquid petrolatum-peanut oil-triethanolamine-stearic acidcetyl alcohol and water, were reported.

The relative intensity of the penetration into the normal human skin of the different test substances listed in the order from the best to the worst penetration, as revealed by this study is as follows: the base consisting of: liquid petrolatum-peanut oil-steric acid-triethanolamine-acetyl alcohol and water; “Hydrosorb” (Abbott), “Aquaphor” (Dule), lard, cold liver oil, stearyl alcohol-mineral oil-water-petrolatum, lanolin, a base consisting of mannide monooleate-ceresin wax-petrolatum-mineral oil-lanolin, lecithin ointment, petrolatum and lanolin to equal parts, petrolatum plus five per cent cetyl alcohol, olive oil, rose water ointment, vaseline (Chesebrough), and finally petrolatum as such.

[->0] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_medium
[->1] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato
[->2] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infusion
[->3] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose
[->4] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fruit
[->5] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vegetable
[->6] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botany
[->7] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exocarp
[->8] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nut_%28fruit%29
[->9] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbaceous
[->10] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree
[->11] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pseudostem
[->12] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corm
[->13] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tree
[->14] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant
[->15] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_stem
[->16] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leaf
[->17] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trunk_(botany)
[->18] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scar
[->19] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diameter
[->20] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmate
[->21] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dioecious
[->22] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumeria
[->23] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wax
[->24] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axil
[->25] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ripening
[->26] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eukaryote
[->27] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yeast
[->28] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mold
[->29] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushrooms
[->30] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_(biology)
[->31] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria
[->32] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_wall
[->33] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitin
[->34] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellulose
[->35] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_ancestor
[->36] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myxomycetes
[->37] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oomycetes
[->38] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycology
[->39] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Botany
[->40] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_medium
[->41] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato
[->42] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infusion
[->43] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose
[->44] – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halo-halo
[->45] – http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/fungi/chytrids.html
[->46] – http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/alllife/eukaryotasy.html [->47] – http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/plantae.html
[->48] – http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/monocots/liliflorae/orchidales.html [->49] – http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/lycophyta/lycophyta.html [->50] – http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/anthophyta/anthophyta.html [->51] – http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/10278.php

Free Alternative Culture Medium for Fungi Essay Sample

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  • University/College: University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 9 January 2017

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