Agricultural Science Essay
The poultry house was properly sanitized in order to keep the chicks healthy and warm in all weather conditions. This was also done to keep away diseases from the chicks. The poultry house was erected at an east – west orientation. * Tools were collected (e.g. broom, empty bags, disinfectant, shovel) * Old litter was shoveled up, bagged and removed to the compost heap. See figure 1. * Using the broom, the mesh and ceiling were cob-webbed. See figure 2. * Materials that were caked onto the floor was scraped using the shovel, the floor was then washed with disinfectant. The tarpaulin was hoisten for sunlight to penetrate the area. * The area was left to dry for two (2) days.
* The tools were cleaned and dried then returned to the storeroom.
Preparation of the Brooding Area (21|9|11)
Brooding is the special care given to the chicks. Brooding is important as it keeps the chicks warm and safe when they are small. * A confined area was constructed for baby chicks.
* Tools and materials were collected e.g. sawdust, newspaper, light bulb, waterers, feeders * Sawdust was placed on the floor and covered with
newspaper to prevent the baby chicks from swallowing the sawdust. See figure 3. * The tarpaulin was rolled down to prevent cold air and water from entering the area. * An infra red bulb was placed in the brooding area to give warmth to the chicks. * Feeders and waterers were washed and disinfected. Water was placed in the waterers. They were then placed in the brooding area. See figure 4. * The foot bath was washed and disinfectant (Jeyes) was then placed in the foot bath to remove bacteria from the feet. See figure 5.
Arrival of chicks (26|9|11)
Upon the arrival of chicks, they were checked for abnormalities and were introduced to water before they were given feed.
Daily observations are carried out from the arrival date to slaughtering date. During this period a number of activities were carried out. * Feeding: young birds are feed daily to enhance growth and health. * Washing of feeders and waterier.
* Removal of old newspaper and replacing them with new ones. * Turning over the litter, with shovel and removing wet litter. * Removal of dead birds and tallying.
* Adjust tarpaulin.
* Adjust automatic feeder and waterer.
Expansion Of Brooders(13|10|11)
The chicks were removed from the brooding area to a larger section of the poultry house where they will stay until they are ready for slaughtering.
75 chicks were bought and a total of 3 died. The mortality rate was worked out to be 4% (375*100) .
Preparation for slaughtering
A day before slaughtering feeding was withdrawn from the chickens so as to
reduce wastage and also to prevent the presence of food in the crop when it is removed. However they were still allowed access to water.
The head of the birds were positioned downwards so that the blood could flow down easily. The heads were cut off using a sharp knife. The chickens were scalded and plucked. Scalding was done by immersing the chicks in a bucket with warm water for about 45-60 seconds. Scalding the chicks allowed the feathers to be removed easily; plucking was done immediately after the scalding process. The chickens were then eviscerated (process of removing everything inside the body and also the head and feet). This process involves * removing by making a cut behind the neck.
* separating the esophagus, trachea and crop from the neck skin. * opening the body cavity by making a cut near the vent, extending the cut around the vent. * removing the viscera (including the lungs) through the opening. * washing the chickens thoroughly when all the contents of the cavity were removed * separating the heart, liver and gizzard; the heart was trimmed to remove any thing that may be attached to it. * trimming the gall bladder, carefully, away from the liver. * splitting the gizzard lengthwise and washing the contents away; the lining was peeled away to make it edible. During the eviscerating process the chickens were put on a sanitized table. After evisceration the carcass was cooled by using ice water. They were then bagged and marketed.
Dressing & Marketing of Birds (16|11|11) Birds were defeathered and the contents were removed, the offals and the carcasses were placed in clean water and put to chill in ice water. After thirty minutes they were then drained and packaged. They were then placed in a refrigerator for storage.
Cleaning up the area (16|11|11)
The feathers were remove to a corner of the farm to be dried and burnt, the intestine was boiled, some was given to the dogs while the rest was disposed of, the slaughtering area was sanitized with disinfectant and washed and
left to be dried for further use and also to keep away flies and other insects.
Output * Income
Output = 375 lbs
Price = $130.00
Projected income = 375 lbs * $130.00
Spade $1,200.00 Booster $420.00 Broom $150.00 Hose $1,000.00 Waterer (2 * $950) $1,900.00 Feeder (2 * $950) $1,900.00 Dust Mask (1 pack) $600.00 Baby Chicks (75 * $63) $4,725.00 Plasson (2 * $3500) $7,000.00 Sawdust (5 * $200) $1,000.00 Tarpaulin (2 * $250) $500.00 Feed (12 * $1300) $15,600.00 Disinfectant\ Jeyes $900.00 Labour $3,000.00 Total $39,475.00 Surplus : Projected income – projected expenditure
Surplus = $48,750.00 – $39,475
Actual Income and Expenditure
Output * Price
Output = 225 lbs
Price = $130.00
Actual Income = $29, 250.00
Booster (1 * $420) = $420.00
Dust Mask (1 * 450) = $450.00
Feed (12 * 1,300) =15,600.00
Baby Chicks (75 * $63) = $725.00
Total = $24,195
Surplus: Actual Income – Actual Expenditure
= $29,250.00 – $24,195.00
Seventy five (75) chicks were bought, 72 were slaughtered due to a 4% mortality rate. It was estimated that all the seventy five (75) chicks bought would be slaughtered. The average weight per chick was 5lbs; the actual weight was 3.125lbs. This resulted in a change in the income, causing a decrease in profit. The actual income was $5,055.00 for chicken meat while the projected income was $9,275.00. The projected expenditure surpassed the actual by $15,280. This was due to fact that we did not purchase the spade, broom, hose, waterers, feeders, plasson, sawdust, tarpaulin and the disinfectant (Jeyes) as they were provided by the school. The projected income and expenditure was more than the actual, however, we still made a profit and not a loss.
Broiler production has become a popular farming activity in the West Indies (W.I.). In Jamaica poultry provide a source of income in a short period of time more than other farm works. To enter the world of poultry you do not need a larger start-up capital so you will find more and more people involve in the poultry business. Another factor is that in less than two month there is a turnover on the capital with proper management and a larger area of production. Since the required space per bird is 6 square inch (15 cm2). It was a success due to the fact that we made a profit and not a loss, however, we could make more profit if we(students) had paid more attention to the chicks.
* Increase the size of the poultry house and brooding area, in order to increase poultry production. * More attention could be paid to the chicks by students. * Provide a farm man to work on weekends and holidays.
After carrying the actual project it is concluded that the rearing of broiler bird takes a minimum of 6 weeks. With proper management boiler production also provide a good profit, it is also observed that boiler has a high dressing percentage and a good converter of feed using an average of two to three pounds of feed to provide one pound of meat.