The most critical stage in a life of a person is in the period of adolesence. It is a specifically turbulent as well as a dynamic period of any person’s life. It is also a period of “strorm and stress” characterized by moodiness, inner tormoil and rebellion. This is a period of transision from childhood to adulthood. This transition involves biological, social, and psychological changes, though the biological ones are the easiest to measure objectively.”Adolescence” is a modern cultural and social phenomenon and therefore its endpoints are not easily tied to physical milestones .
The time is identified with dramatic changes in the body, along with developments in a person’s psychology and academic career. In the onset of adolescence, children usually complete elementary school and enter secondary education, such as middle school or high school. During this period, the young develops to sexual maturity and establishes an identity as an individual. Their sense of identity develops gradually out of the various identification of childhood.
The adolescent is newly concerned with how they appear to others. Ego identity is the accrued confidence that the inner sameness and continuity prepared in the past are matched by the sameness and continuity of one’s meaning for others, as evidenced in the promise of a career. The inability to settle on a school or occupational identity is disturbing.
A major task confronting the adolescent is to develop a sense of individual identity, to find answers to the questions “Who am I” and “where am I going” .
The process also involves feelings about self-worth and competence. Although development of sel-concept starts in early childhood and continues throughout the lifespan.
Searching of the unique identity is one of the problems that adolesence often face. Some, but not all, teenager often challenge the authority or the rules as a way to establish their individuality. There is also a probability of drugs and alcohol use, or mental health disorder, eating disorders and depression.
Historically this stage of development began much later, sometime between the ages of fourteen and eighteen, which allowed the child to mentally and emotionally mature more and brought them closer to the age of consent before reaching this physical and emotionally challenging
Physical maturation resulting from puberty leads to an interest in sexual activities sometimes leading to teenage pregnancy. Since teens may not be emotionally or mentally mature enough or financially able to support children, sexual activity among adolescents is problematic.
Given the emotional immaturity of adolescents, many countries consider those under a certain age to be too young to engage in and other sexual activities, even if they are physiologically capable.
Family conflict is more common during adolesence than during other period of development. Puberty appears to play a central role in initiating this conflict. Adolesence of both sexes have significantly more conflicts with their mothers than with their fathers. Probably because mothers are more involve in regulating the everyday details of family life. Parents are often torn between the necessity of maintaining the family system and allowing their child increasing jurisdiction over his or her behavior. Childhood even with intact families is never troubled free. The fact that the most important emotionla structure in the childhood’s life is the parents’ marriage. Ends in failure becomes forever embeded in that child’s history.
It can not be denied that fathers are very important in the family. Without a father there is no family. The absence of the father maybe associated with some undesirable behavior of the children. Among wihich are poor school performance,poor relationships with peer, problems with impulse control, rebellious and other adjustment difficulties.
It is like the case of a 16 year old girl whose parents are divorce. She displayed undesirable behavior like rebellious, trouble in school and she desires male attention. Adolesence are in the process of affirming up their identity. They need both parents to affirm them in developing womanliness and how to relate to other people of the opposite sex.
Childhood, even with intact families is never troubled-free. The fact that the most important emotional structure in the child’s life is the parents’ marriage – ends in failure becomes forever embeded in that child’s history. Being a child of devorce, there is a need of several therapy. A joint therapy of parents is also needed to understand the need to work together for the children.
In order to pass from childhood to adulthood the adolesence must solve a number of problems. He must develop heterosexual interest, become free from home supervision, make new emotional and social adjustments to reality. They should evolve a philosophy of life, achieve economic and intellectual independence and learn how to use their leisure time profitably. If they fail of these any achievements, he fails to gain full maturity. Because adolesence are caught between two worlds, one of the dependence, the other of the responsibility. They would like the power to decide for themselves, but are not certain they want to increased responsibility that accompanies adulthood.