Adolescent Psychological Disorder: Depression
Adolescent Psychological Disorder: Depression
Depression is a common psychological disorder which is more likely to be experienced by young people. Although this psychological disorder could be manifested in all age range, studies show that individuals who are in their adolescence to early adulthood stage have greater tendency to feel depress (Costell, Swendsen & Rose, 173, 2008). This disorder is often accompanied by feelings of sadness, despair or hopelessness which eventually causes a person to become isolated among the other individuals.
Several issues regarding the frequency of depression occurrence had been studied by researchers. It is said that the rate of depression is determined by the differences in gender, race and ethnicity. This claim suggests that women are more likely to experience depression than men and the same holds regarding the issue of ethnicity and race. Thus, the whites were less to experience depression than the minority (Brown, Meadows & Elder, 1300, 2007). Most of the time sadness and depression is interchangeably used.
While it is true that depression is a product of intense sadness, one must know the distinction between these two. As to elaborate a little, the feeling of sadness has less damaging effect and usually last within a short period of time. Individuals learn to let go of this feeling at a much faster phase while people who embrace this feeling for a long time would eventually develop the depression disorder. Two types of depression basically arise, that is, major depression and minor depression (dysthymia).
The degree or state of depression varies as an individual ages. The major depression disorder usually last in a short period of time but is basically more severe than the other type. The consequences that depression posed on one’s individuality are essential consideration to be reflected on. Most of these consequences are harmful and can bring damaging effect to the life of an individual thus thorough understanding of this psychological disorder would impose a great advantage. Causes of Depression Occurrence of depression is brought by numerous factors.
Events, people, the environment as well as genetic factors contribute to the incidence of depression. In this paper, three causes of depression from different studies conducted would be discussed. Some of these causes of can eventually be modified while some are not liable to change. Nutrition was viewed to have a vital contribution to depression. (Shariatpanaahi et al, 532, 2007). It is established that the mental and cerebral mechanisms are being affected due to nutrient deficiencies therefore resulting to mood disorders including depression.
Prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia was viewed to have certain contribution to depression. The study conducted by Shariatpanaahi and his colleagues looked at the association between serum ferritin level and depression. Their study resulted that students who are experiencing depression have lower serum ferritin level than the healthy ones (Shariatpanaahi et al, 534, 2007). With reference to the result generated, lower serum ferritin level which indicates minimal presence of iron in the body was viewed to have a vital role in the brain function and in the establishment of depression.
The stressful experience of college freshmen to their new environment inside the learning place could also trigger depression. Being in an unfamiliar environment is a stressful event that brings a sense of discomfort (Dyson and Renk, 1231, 2006). Accompanying this feeling of discomfort is the change on depression symptomatology that they experience. Being in their transition stage towards adulthood, stress and depression were showed to be greatly triggered. Race and ethnicity is also viewed for depressive symptoms to occur.
The study conducted by Brown and his colleagues (2007) resulted that different race-ethnic groups (including Hispanics, Asians, Blacks and whites) shows different level of depressive symptoms. In their study, the whites showed the lowest level of such symptoms while the Hispanics and Asians showed the highest. The level of depressive symptoms among the blacks falls between the whites and the two other race-ethnic groups (1300). Explanation for the occurrence of such depressive symptoms are said to be interconnected with the mental health and stressful experiences of these different minority groups.
The location or condition of the Hispanics, Asians and Blacks in the society greatly contributes to their depression. Most of these groups, as well as their family, belongs to the lower class in the society thus receiving minimal benefits in terms of health care and tends to dwell in neighborhoods which are characterized as unsafe (Brown, Meadows & Elder, 1298, 2007). Upon the exposure of these race-ethnic groups to these conditions, the depression disorder develops and is heightened.
Symptoms of Depression Basically the most obvious symptom of depression is an intense feeling of sadness manifested most of the time. Different symptoms are expressed by individuals in different age brackets as well as different instances or conditions of these individuals in the society. Taking in consideration the study conducted by Brown and his colleagues, symptoms of depression manifested by the race-ethnic minority includes anxiety and a sense of inferiority (Brown, Meadows & Elder, 1307, 2007).
For new colleges trying to be familiar and adapting to their new environment, behaviors including a depressed mood or sadness most of the time (being away from their parents), irritability, inability to enjoy things and inability to concentrate are apparent (Dyson and Renk, 1234, 2006). Other symptoms that are most likely associated with depression includes withdrawal from friends and family, significant weight loss or gain, change in sleep patterns, pessimism and indifference, feeling tired, feeling numb emotionally and the worst is entertaining the thought of death or suicide.
Effects of the Disorder Depression, if not given thorough attention could bring the worst effect to an individual. How an individual responds to the feeling of depression determines the effect of the disorder in his actions (Nolen-Hoeksema, 569, 1991). The feeling of depression is more likely to bring about negative thoughts in an individual’s mind. With these thoughts in mind, negative emotions would also be triggered. Entertaining such thoughts and emotions would bring distraction in one’s health, education, work and relationship with other people.
Adolescence performance in school tends to decline as a result of depression (Dyson and Renk, 1234, 2006). Because of their inability to concentrate or focus on the lessons being thought in the learning place, their grades used to decline. Academic failures, school dissatisfaction as well as negative relationship with teachers and other students may take place. Depressed individuals seem to be pre-occupied with their thought of being depressed therefore interfering with their capability to think critically, perform well and socialized with other individuals in the learning place.
Such scenario is true in the work place. Because of the disorder, individuals are more likely to be out of focus on their work thus they are more likely to accomplish lesser job (or they do not accomplish anything at all) within a given period. This type of behavior in the workplace would bring unwanted effects on the part of the individual as well as in the company. This could also lead to an individual’s dismissal in the job. Again, such dismissal would only trigger further depression and could bring forth to a worst event.
Depressed individuals also shows attitude of wanting to be alone. Sharing one’s frustration (which eventually causes the prevalence of depression) with his family is sometimes hard to do. This ultimately contribute to a reduce interaction and may develop poor family relationship. Sometimes, depressed adolescent causes negative confrontation between parents as well as between siblings. Psychiatric hospitalization can also occur among adolescence if the level of depression is severe (Herman and Ostrander, 484, 2007). Some depressed individuals tend to be engaged in accidents in roads.
They tend to drive recklessly thus resulting to several body impairments (Nolen-Hoeksema, 570, 199). Such action of reckless and violent driving is a means to pour out the feeling of depression. However, Nolen-Hoeksema argued that the relief from depression through this action is only for a short run. Coping up with Depression Several therapies and combination of these therapies are being suggested by psychologists as well as doctors to cope up with depression. In the study conducted by Nolen-Hoeksema, 570, 1991), she suggested the used of distractive response as a way to cope up with depression.
In this response, adolescence experiencing depression are encourage to draw their attention to other things such as engaging in activity with friends or doing a hobby. In this way, Nolen-Hoeksema hypothesized that an individual would tend be distracted and would somehow overcome his feeling of depression. Guidance and support of family members (especially support from mothers) is also a means to help adolescence to cope up with depression. The multi family group approach (Lemmmens et al, 51, 2007) is greatly encouraged.
This approach is concern to provide the needs of the patient and also guides the family to stand the difficulties of depression that are experience by the family as a whole. Fostering interaction between the patient and members of his family would put the patient at ease. Recognizing the fact that his family is there to support him and guide him all through out would lessen his burden and would therefore aid in treating depression. Cognitive therapy was also studied to aid in the treatment of depression (Beevers and Miller, 68, 2005).
The result of there study shows that the used of mentioned therapy ‘may help patients to deal more functionally to their negative thoughts. ’ As stated on the discussion regarding the effects of depression, negative thoughts are said to be the driving force in which depression arises. Effectively managing these negative would lessen the occurrence of the disorder. This type of approach or therapy is basically more of prevention rather than treatment. Nevertheless, its efficiency in the control of depression is noteworthy.
Conclusion Depression is brought about by several factors faced by an individual in the society. Although this psychological disorder is somewhat inevitable and is said to be a common disorder, prevention and treatments should be provided. As to any other physical or psychological diseases, severe state of depression could bring unwanted and detrimental effect to the individual himself as well as to other people. Manifestation of symptoms of this psychological disorder must be taken in deep consideration. The stage of adolescence undeniably entails a lot of stress that could somehow cause an individual to incur depression.
Adolescents are vulnerable to changes because different emotional as well as physiological activities are happening within their body. It is therefore important to be considerate and out lay the necessary actions to guard the adolescents to the threats of depression. Involvement of parents and other family members in preventing and treating the said disorder is greatly encourage. Other therapies should also be considered as a treatment for this disorder. Thorough understanding of the causes, symptoms and treatments of depression would be of great significant.
The harm that this disorder imposes to adolescents is truly alarming. Its effects on the individual’s well-being and activities are disturbing. Psychologists together with other medical researchers are continuously finding ways to lessen the occurrence of this disorder. Thus, in order for their efforts to efficiently work, a collaborative support from the society is needed. The society should not undermine the effects of depression but instead thorough knowledge regarding this disorder as well as the harm that accompanies it must be explained and made clear.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 31 October 2016
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