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Achievement OF THE Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for education in ethiopia PREPARED BY: ABIY NEGUSSIE A senier ESSAY SUBMITTED in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Bachelor of Arts degree in public administration and development Management Department of Public Administration and Development management Faculty of business and economics Addis Ababa University Addis Ababa, Ethiopia JUNE 2008 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I would like to express my deep appreciation for my mother and father for their encouragement and financial support.
My sincere gratitude goes to my adviser Ato Berhanu Temesgen, who has provided me with his important suggestions and comments for which I am most grateful.
Finally, I would like to thank Hanna Negussie and Brook Tilahun for their positive remarks and support. Abiy Negussie Chapter one: Introduction 1 Background of the study Education makes people more receptive to change and innovation. It is an instrument used to produce skilled manpower which is the driving force behind any development endeavor.
The development of human resources has been recognized as one of the major challenges that are facing the developing countries in the process of achieving economic and social development.
This problem can only be alleviated through improvements and expansion of education. It plays a key role in enhancing economic progress, improving individual welfare and social development. In recognition of these multidimensional benefits, governments, international community and development agencies have placed increasingly high attention on education.
In this regard the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) plays an important role in addressing this problem by including it as its main objective to alleviate from its grass root level.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a culmination of several consultations that have been made since the mid-1990s on several international forums regarding global poverty and human deprivation. At the occasion of the Millennium Summit, in September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government and 191 nations including Ethiopia adopted the Millennium Declaration.
The Declaration has mainstreamed a set of inter-connected and mutually reinforcing development goals and targets into a global agenda. Most of the targets set by the Millennium Declaration were not new. They have been derived from the global conferences of the 1990s and from the body of international conventions that have been codified over the past half-century. The MDGs are goals with the general objectives of the plan where to promote sustained economic growth particularly in the developing countries, ensure a standard of living and facilitate the process of narrowing the gap between the developed and the developing countries.
They are a set of time-bound and measurable goals and targets designed to decrease poverty, hunger, disease, illiteracy, environmental devastation and discrimination against women. They are a unique approach to these worldly problems – they confer obligations on both rich and poor governments, but place a heavier burden on rich countries in terms of financial and materials provision. The following are MDGs goals which are to be reached in 2015 Goal 1. Reduce the level of poverty and hunger Goal 2. Achieve full primary education coverage
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4. Reduce child mortality Goal 5. Improve Maternal Health Goal 6. Combat Malaria, Tubercluosis, HIV/AIDS and Others Goal 7. Enshur Enviromental Sustanibility Goal 8. Develope a global partnership for development Two of the MDGs are related to education, namely Goal 2 of achieving universal primary education and Goal 3 of promoting gender equality and empower women as it concerns the elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education at all levels.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are not only reiterated Universal Primary Education (UPE) as one primary goal but also emphasize that there should be gender equality in access to primary education in all countries. In this respect, the submit calls for countries to plan and implement appropriate policies and strategies to ensure UPE for all children by 2015. Achieving the goal of UPE by 2015 requires not only children are in school but also complete primary education.
Furthermore, the MDGs require development agencies and developed countries to re-affirm their commitment to provide financial and technical assistance to poor countries to implement these plans. 2 Statement of the problem The compressive nature of MDGs, targets and indicators pose several problems as well as opportunity for the countries that embraced them and Ethiopia is also one of them. For the last many decades Ethiopia is characterized by higher level of poverty prevalence, poor access for education, health, water supply and sanitation.
In the recent years there are some improvements regarding reduction of poverty, access to education and health. Especially the education sector is in rapid growth than ever before. The MDGs regarding education requires that there should be full primary enrolment and elimination of gender disparity in primary and secondary education. Despite rapid expansion of primary enrollment in Ethiopia, many children continue to remain behind normal schooling progress.
According to the Ministry of Education the Current national figures indicate that nearly 45 percent of the children who enroll in grade one drop out school before completing grade five (MOE, 2005). There is also the problem of children of getting the chance to be in school at an appropriate age. For instance in 2004/05 the Ministry of Education showed that of the total children who were enrolled in grade one, only about 60 percent of the total children are seven years of age the remaining 40 percent of the current enrollees in grade one are older than seven years of age (MOE, 2005).
Apart from this, children’s primary schooling in Ethiopia encounters high rates of dropout and of grade failures. For instance, according to the official data sources (MOE, 2005), nearly one among four in grade-one children drops out of school and about 3 percent of them repeat grade-one. Moreover, primary education in Ethiopia has low rates of completion with around 43 percent and 66 percent of children quitting school before completing that is in the lower rate in lower primary education (less than grade 5) and higher rate in upper primary education (above grade 5) in 2004/05.
As noted by Bennell (2002) as cited in Degnet Abebaw (2007) for many other Sub-Saharan countries, the high gross enrollment figures in Ethiopia mask the fact that nearly half of children do not complete the full primary education. Moreover, an increase in gross enrollment rate could be due to a rise in the number of children repeating grades. In fact, the critical educational problem for many countries around the world is not the availability of school facilities but children dropping out or not attending available schools.
In order to achieve the MDGs which are related to the education sector the above challenges should be solved or at least be at their minimal. And individuals can not alleviate such problems by themselves rather it needs a corporate effort especially from the side of government. And the government can act through its policies and actions. In general this paper discusses the following questions which require high attention in order to achieve the MDGs for education. 1. What is the net primary school enrollment rate in Ethiopia? 2.
What is the reason behind the high rate of drop out of primary school in Ethiopia? 3. How much of the primary school educational facilities are existed in Ethiopia? 4. What kind of efforts can be taken to increase the number of children to be in school at an appropriate age? 3 Objectives of the study This paper is designed with a view of highlighting the achievements of MDGs for education in the Ethiopian context and review the Government’s Strategies, and the challenges to meet the targets set under MDGs. The specific objectives of the studies are • To know what the Millennium development goals (MDGs) are To asses the progress made after the embracement of MDGs • To asses the current condition of Ethiopian educational system • To forward the possible recommendations 4 Research Methodology The objective of this paper is to show how much work is done and needed for the achievement of the MDGs for education, the challenges and the set backs for achieving the given targets. In order to achieve its objective the study used both primary secondary data. Various studies related to the subject have been consulted and different statistical bulletins have been extensively examined.
Along with this, several related reports have been assessed for the purpose. Moreover, discussions with relevant officials in the Ministry of Education have been made in order to update the information. 5 Scope and Limitations of the study The scope of the Paper only focuses at the national level; it was not applied at the regional level. The natural limitation of the study is that it largely depends on secondary data, time limitation and financial constraints made the general study difficult. 6 Significance of the study This study is significant in the following respects.
The first is to have a better and widespread understanding of MDGs and their relevance to the current situation of Ethiopia. Secondly by discovering the educational performance in the light of the MDGs and it reveals weather the country is in the right track for the achievement goal 2 or not. 7 Organization of the Paper The first chapter is an introductory part. It includes the background of the study, the problems, objectives, methodology, significance, scope and limitation and organization of the paper. The second chapter discusses about what the MDGs are and their evolution to come in to existence, the need for lacing MDGs in the local context, the educational system of Ethiopia in general. The third chapter deals with the current situation of Ethiopian educational system in eyes of MDGs educational objectives. The fourth chapter focuses on giving conclusions and recommendations. Chapter two: Literature review . 1 Historical background of MDGs The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a culmination of several consultations that have been made since the mid-1990s on several international forums regarding global poverty and human deprivation.
At the occasion of the Millennium Summit, in September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government and 191 nations including Ethiopia adopted the Millennium Declaration. The Declaration has mainstreamed a set of inter-connected and mutually reinforcing development goals and targets into a global agenda. Most of the targets set by the Millennium Declaration were not new. They have been derived from the global conferences of the 1990s and from the body of international conventions that have been codified over the past half-century.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the results of international Conferences and World Summits from the 1960s to 1990s. Those years are divided in four development decads focusing largely on economic growth. The first UN Development Decade was launched by the General Assembly in December 1961. It called on all member states to intensify their efforts to mobilize support for measures required to accelerate progress toward self-sustaining economic growth and social advancement in the developing countries.
With each developing country setting its own target, the objective would be a minimum annual growth rate of 5 percent in aggregate national income by the end of the decade. In 1970, the General Assembly adopted a resolution outlining an international development strategy for the second UN Development Decade. The main objectives of the plan were to promote sustained economic growth, particularly in the developing countries; ensure a higher standard of living, and facilitate the process of narrowing the gap between the developed and developing countries.
The General Assembly declared that the developing countries were not engaged in the primary responsibility for their development but that their efforts would be insufficient without increased financial assistance and more favorable economic and commercial policies on the part of the developed countries. Under the goals and objectives of the second decade, the General Assembly stated that the average annual rate of growth in the gross product of the developing countries as a whole should be at least 6 percent, with the possibility of attaining a higher rate in the second half of the decade.
Such a rate of growth would imply an average annual expansion of 4 Percent in agricultural output and 8 Percent in manufacturing output. The third UN development decade which had begun on 1, January 1981, focused on New International Economic Order (NIEO), which introduced by developing countries. The new international development strategy was adopted by the General Assembly for the third UN Development Decade. It agreed to the goals and objectives of the strategy and to translate them to reality by adopting a coherent set of interrelated, concrete and effective policy measures in all sectors of development
The strategy set forth goals and objectives for an accelerated development of the developing countries in the period 1981–90, including the following: (1) a 7 Percent average annual rate of growth of gross domestic product (GDP); (2) a 7. 5 Percent annual rate of expansion of exports and an 8 Percent annual rate of expansion of imports of goods and services; (3) an increase in gross domestic savings to reach about 24 Percent of GDP by 1990; (4) a rapid and substantial increase in official development assistance by all developed countries, to reach or surpass the target of 0. Percent of GNP of developed countries; (5) a 4 Percent average annual rate of expansion of agricultural production; and (6) a 9 Percent annual rate of expansion of manufacturing output. Other goals and objectives of the strategy included the attainment, by the year 2000, of full employment, of universal primary school enrollment, and of life expectancy of 60 years as a minimum, with infant mortality rates no higher than 50 per 1,000 live births.
In 1990, the General Assembly concluded that its goals for the Third UN Development Decade had not been attained. It set new priorities and goals for the growth of the developing member nations with its International Development Strategy (IDS) for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade (1991–2000). Within one year of its passage, however, the former USSR had dissolved, forever changing the landscape of international economic relations.
Many of the assumptions on which the IDS had been based were upset by the historic forces that were thus set in motion. In September 1990, the Second United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries set targets for official development assistance (ODA) to those nations. The General Assembly, through the new IDS, urged industrialized countries to reach or surpass those targets. It also recommended that developing countries try to raise their rate of industrialization by 8–10 Percent and increase their annual food production by 4 Percent.
The implementation of the commitment of IDS was not successful according to the study committee report conducted in October 1999. For future purposes, the report of the October 1999 went on to differentiate between growth, which may carry with it negative social consequences, and development, which means more than simply increased purchasing power (as reflected in gross domestic product per capita). According to the report, development also pertains to education, health, and environmental standards, as well as to social (including gender) equity.
For this reason the UN report said, “The spotlight is now shifting from a focus on macroeconomic challenges to a number of institutional preconditions, including good governance, transparency and accountability, decentralization and participation and social security”. Acceptable and viable development strategies in the new millennium would have to take into account the prevailing circumstances in developing countries, which could not be expected to keep pace with industrialized, developed societies in the North.
As a result, the MDGs reflect the emerging role of human rights in the international community, focusing on the economic, social and cultural rights enumerated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (rights to food, education, health care, and decent standard of living). The Goals also reflect a mixture of economic theory and human rights since a variety of human rights advocacy groups and civil society organizations participated in the drafting of the Goals. In September 2000 the United Nations General Assembly, representing 189 countries, unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration.
As per the United Nations General Assembly’s request, the Secretary General and various UN agencies, as well as representatives of the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF), and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), devised a plan for achieving the Millennium Declaration’s objectives – resulting in 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators known as the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Eighteen specific goals have been set across the eight goals and forty five indicators to monitor these targets.
Teshome (2007) redrafted following table which shows the MDGs goals and targets Table 1- The full set of MDGs Goals and targets |MDGs Goals |MDGs Targets | |Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Hunger and|1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day | |Poverty |2.
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger | |Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary |3. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of | |Education |primary schooling | |Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and |4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of | |Empower Women |education no later than 2015 | |Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality |5.
Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate | |Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health |6. Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio | |Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and|7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS | |other diseases |8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases | |Goal 7: Ensure Environmental |9.
Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of | |Sustainability |environmental resources | | |10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic | | |sanitation | | |11.
Have achieved by 2020 a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers | |Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership|12. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system (includes a | |for Development |commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction both nationally and internationally) | | |13.
Address the special needs of the Least Developed Countries (includes tariff- and quota-free access for Least | | |Developed Countries: exports, enhanced program of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries [HIPCs] and | | |cancellation of official bilateral debt, and more generous official development assistance for countries committed| | |to poverty reduction) | | |14.
Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing states (through the | | |Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and 22nd General Assembly | | |provisions) | | |15.
Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international | | |measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term | | | | Source: (Teshome, 2007), Prospects and challenges of water supply and MDGs in Ethiopia, Page 8 Implementation of the MDGs in selected African countries 1 Kenya Kenya has initiated the implementation process for the MDGs . in September 2002, when a stakeholders’ workshop was held to seek consensus and promote understanding on the significance of the MDGs, their links to the national planning frameworks, and the mode and frequency of country-level reporting. Later, the Government, with support from development Partners undertook an assessment of Kenya’s performance in relation to each of the eight MDGs and compiled a report which was launched in July 2003. UNDP, 2005) The report indicates that there is high potential to meet some of the goals such as goals 2 (Achieve Universal Primary Education) and 6(Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases). The MDG-based planning process in Kenya was officially launched on 12th May 2004 to demonstrate the government’s commitment to reach the MDGs by 2015. (UNDP, 2005) 1 Implementation of the MDGs in Kenya The September 2002 workshop was aimed at seeking consensus and to promote the understanding of the significance of the MDGs, their links to the national planning frameworks, and the mode and frequency of country level reporting. UNDP 2005)The workshop thus served as one of the first avenues towards agreeing on a country-level reporting format, including the role of various national stakeholders. The workshop led to the establishment of a national MDGs Task Force to spearhead the MDG campaign and prepare the first status report on MDGs in Kenya. Consequently, a MDG Progress Report for Kenya was officially launched in July 2003. The Report formed a major reference material for subsequent work and MDG campaign in Kenya.
The MDG Progress report clearly brought to the fore the fact that under the current resource constraints and policy environment, Kenya is unlikely to achieve the MDGs, unless the development environment is radically changed. (UNDP 2005) In order to focus the country’s development agenda on MDGs, the Government prepared a MDGs Needs Assessment Concept Note in May2004 as an initial step in the move to and MDGs-based planning path. (UNDP 2005) The Government in May 2004 then officially launched the MDG-based national planning process.
This was followed later in the month by a National Stakeholders workshop, attended by Cabinet ministers, development partner representatives, Permanent ERS Pillars Rapid growth with macroeconomic stability Rehabilitation and expansion of infrastructure Investment in human capital Strengthening institutions of governance Revitalizing productive sectors: Agriculture, Tourism Trade & Industry MDGs Equivalent Investments- public and private; foreign and domestic-with strong national facilitation and regulation.
Transportation (roads and rails), housing, energy, water and sanitation, Education, gender equality; child mortality, maternal health, HIV, TB and malaria, health systems, Declaration to improve governance, Approaches to meet the Millennium Goal on hunger, create jobs and increase incomes. Secretaries, senior government officials, senior policy advisors from the Millennium Project secretariat, researchers and women leaders and CSOs The workshop issued a joint communication together with sector reports identify interventions and targets and data requirements for the assessments in each of the goals. UNDP 2005) 2 Achievement of Goal 2 of the MDGs in Kenya The introduction of Free Primary Education (FPE) impacted positively on the enrolment of both boys and girls. An extra 1. 5 million children are now accessing primary education, increasing the enrolments from 5. 9 million to 7. 4 million in 2004. The GER stands at 104. 8% as compared to 93% in 2002. Provisional Net Enrolment Rates (NER) figures for 2004 stands at 82. 1% of which boys comprise 82. 2% and girls 82. 0% The National Gross Enrolment Rates (GER) at primary level was recorded at about 93% between 1999 and 2002. UNDP 2005) Enrolment at this level however continues to experience sharp regional disparities, being particularly low among girls in arid and semi-arid regions. In addition, output and quality assessment studies reflect problems of quality in teaching and learning. The 1999 census showed that, a total of 2. 8 million boys and girls aged between 14 and 17 years who should have been in secondary school were not enrolled. The FPE is also putting pressure for expansion in secondary school enrolment. This will lead to achievement in the transition rate from primary to secondary from the current 54%to 70%. UNDP 2005) According to the MDGs report of 2005 though there have been marked achievements towards realizing universal primary education in the country, free primary education continues to experience a number of challenges such as: a) Overcrowding in schools especially those in urban slums, ASALs areas, pockets of poverty and densely populated areas; b) Inadequate physical facilities due to increased enrolment; c) High pupil/teacher ratios in some schools; d) High cost of special equipment/facilities and materials to cater for children with special needs.
About 90,000 of the 750,000 school-ages have been assessed to establish the nature of their special needs, yet only 26,885 are enrolled in educational programmes; e) Low quality of education offered in non -formal education and lack of linkage with the formal education system (inadequate teaching and learning resources, poor physical facilities and low prioritization by Government in terms of budgetary allocations f) In-servicing of teachers to adopt alternative methods of delivery; g) Low transition rates from primary to secondary leading to very high wastages; h) Diminished support by communities; i) Gender and regional disparities; j) Quality and relevance of education and training; k) High cost of financing FPE programme etc. (UNDP 2005) 2 Tanzania The Government of Tanzania established its national Poverty Monitoring System in 2001.
Since then, the Government together with other stakeholders has strengthened the process of monitoring national indicators on MDGs. (UNDP, 2006) 1 Implementation of MDGs in Tanzania The year 2005 heralded an opportunity to critically take stock of the impact of poverty eradication efforts with a view to further strengthen strategies to accelerate poverty eradication and meet the targets of the National Strategies for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (2005 – 2010) and Millennium Development Goals 2015. (UNDP, 2006) In Tanzania, implementation of the five year National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP) began in July 2005. This home-grown and outcome-based Poverty Reduction Strategy was developed as result of a highly consultative process.
NSGRP was informed by experiences of past policies including the Tanzania Development Vision 2025, National Poverty Eradication Strategy (NPES) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP), which provided a strong foundation for poverty reduction. NSGRP and its monitoring system was also informed by MDGs. (UNDP, 2006) Implementation of economic reform programmes that began in 1986 have restored macroeconomic balances leading to high rates of economic growth. Real GDP growth rose from 4. 8 per cent in 2000 to 6. 8 per cent in 2005 and 3. 6 percent to 5. 6 per cent respectively, for Tanzania. The growth was mainly due to improved performance of the sectors of agriculture, wholesale and retail trade, hotels, restaurants, tourism, mining and manufacturing. The target is to contain and stabilize it around 4 per cent per annum up to 2010. (UNDP, 2006)
The government has put in place several national and sub-national processes and reforms in order to ensure wide participation of its citizens in the development process and improve accountability of public officials with regard to high quality service delivery. The process and reforms include Public Sector reform, which aims at improving the efficiency and quality of public administration; Local Government reform aimed at realizing the goal of decentralization by devolution; Business Licensing Reform aimed at creating conducive business environment for the development of the private sector. Further, Parastatal sector reforms aim at liberalizing the sector and the economy broadly; financial sector reform at creating a vibrant financial sector, which responds to the needs of the economy where the private sector is recognized as engine of growth.
And finally, Public Financial Management reforms aimed at strengthening the government budgeting process and accountability. The government has also continued to strengthen key national processes to ensure broad participation of citizens in policy design and implementation. This has included strengthening national and local planning processes, budgeting, expenditure tracking and poverty monitoring. Mechanisms for empowering communities at the grass roots level have been put in place and include initiatives such as Community Health Services Boards. (UNDP, 2006) 2 Achievement of Goal 2 of the MDGs in Tanzania Most indicators in education have registered improvement over time. By 2006, net enrolment rates had risen to 94. per cent and 77 per cent in Tanzania and Zanzibar respectively. (UNDP, 2006) Primary School retention rates (proportion of children enrolled in Standard I who complete Standard VII) have improved from 71 per cent in 1997 to 79 per cent in 2004 in Tanzania. (UNDP, 2006) According to the 2002 Population census data, literacy rate among age 15+ is 70 per cent (78 per cent for men and 62 per cent for women). Overall, about 28. 6 percent of Tanzanians cannot read and write in any language. There is more illiteracy among women (36per cent) than men (20. 4 per cent). The target of eliminating illiteracy by 2015 remains challenging particularly for rural women.
Implementation of the Primary Education Development Plan (PEDP) has greatly helped Mainland Tanzania be on track to achieving MDG 2. PEDP is being rolled over to 2011. (UNDP, 2006) Poor families have been provided for, by allowing their children to attend school free of charge. Expansion of secondary school infrastructures has resulted in increased intake of Primary School leavers thus adding motivation to staying the full course of primary schooling. Measures to improve the quality of education and the environment, including those for the disabled, are in place and are planned to be implemented. Legislations prescribing deterrent punishment have been enacted to ensure that school age children are being enrolled and are kept in school. (UNDP, 2006)
Despite the achievement, policies and actions need now to be directed at ensuring that pupils complete the full course of primary schooling in addition to safeguarding standards. In a nutshell these challenges call for stepped up efforts to be directed at addressing causes that keep children out of school after enrolment (such as labor demands, early marriages, pregnancies, and the inability to meet costs), addressing quality of service delivery (ensuring availability of adequate quality teachers, textbooks and other learning materials, and an enabling teaching and learning environment) and to facilitate access and enrolment of disabled children. (UNDP, 2006) 3 Introducing the MDGs in Ethiopia In June 2002, Africans first action forum significantly raised the profile of the MDGs with in Ethiopia.
It was organized by UNDP and was held in Addis Ababa. the forum brought together high level government officials, civil society leaders, private sector representatives and UN staff from 14 central and east African counties to plan, policies and programs to achieve the MDGs, Simultaneously, the UN country team begun to introduce the MDGs to Ethiopian counterparts and to advocate for a national agenda for poverty reduction and the prospect of additional aid helped to motivate the government of Ethiopia to address the goals. The Ethiopian government decided to rely on the SDPRP structures which are already in place instead of creating parallel mechanisms.
It did however established a MDGs task force to coordinate campaigning and preparation of MDGs report, co- chaired by the director of planning in the MOFED and the UNDP, UNICEF, WHO, and UNDFPA joined in February 2003 and succeeded in preparing the 2004 MDGs report. The government opted to consult civil society at a later stage and through different means. (Teshome 2007) Further more the discussion in the MDGs report showed that there are several areas in which the translation of the MDGs in the context of Ethiopia can be monitored using data that are less expensive, could be easily generated and helpful in tracking development and remain comparable over time. (Teshome, 2007) The MDGs report’s discussion of placing the local context has conveyed two messages.
The first massage relates to the fact that all targets have equal Wight and urgency in Ethiopian context: it is impossible to separate and make emphasis on one or the other as there is so much interdependence that the total is greater than the sum of the individual goals. The second message is that investigation the policy stance of the government of Ethiopia has shown evidence of consistency with the tents of the MDGs in the last decade. (Teshome 2007) However, several constraints such as institutional bottlenecks, inefficient civil service, structural rigidities with in the economy, sever fiscal constraints and major shocks such as war and drought undermine the progress to wards registering meaningful reductions in the incidence of poverty. (Tsehaynesh 2003) 5 Placing MDGs in the Local Context
Adopting MDGs to the local context is important because the global MDGs are too general to fit the specific context of a particular country. According to MOFAED (2004), adopting MDGs to the local context is understood as an exercise that helps to: (a) Examine MDG indicators based on data availability; (b) Ensure the consistency of the goals and the policy context and time line; (c) Examine the governance structure which will be instrumental for design and implementation of policies and strategies; and (d) Determine the feasibility of targets in light of observed trends and required finance. 6 National Development Policy Framework and the MDGs Key policy documents that the Government issued since the early 1990s were primarily concerned with poverty and well being in Ethiopia.
The Economic Reform Program, which was implemented between 1992 and 1997, through four Policy Framework Papers, adhered to the objective of sound macroeconomic stance, structural transformation that rewards both labor and capital, increased expenditure on education and health services, enhancing food-security, and deepening of market integration with the overarching objective of reducing poverty. Several sector policy documents (the sector development programs-SDPs) that encompass a planning period of up to 20 years were drafted and adopted by the Government. These included education, health and food-security strategies with details of their financing as well as clear annual and decadal targets.
It is worth mentioning that some of the targets, particularly the ones relating to education and health, were informed by the International Development Goals, which were introduced in the mid-90s. Currently, one of the important policy documents is Sustainable Development and Poverty Reduction Program (SDPRP). The SDPRP is built on the four building blocks: Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) Strategy, Decentralization and Empowerment, Justice System and Civil Service Reform, and Capacity Building for Public and Private Sector. According to MOFAED (2004), the Government has set its three main objectives in this document: A. Rapid development of the economy B. Extracting the country from dependence on food aid and C. Making the poor the main beneficiaries from economic growth
The SDPRP uses many of the MDGs targets as benchmarks and utilizes the indicators to monitor progress towards the Goals. Therefore, the MDGs are embraced in the policy documents of the Ethiopian Government and there is an effort to achieve them. From this perspective, the MDGs are timely and relevant for Ethiopia given the massive poverty that is entrenched in the society and the appalling human misery that accompanies this level of poverty. Similar to harmonizing MDGs with the Government goals, there is also an attempt to harmonize the follow-up and monitoring of targets set in the SDPRP with the MDGs. This is partly facilitated by harmonization of the MDGs with SDPRP targets.
Also according to UNDP, connecting SDPRP to the MDGs in Ethiopia can contribute to • Deepening of effective partnership or reduce poverty • Assessment of needs, actions and costs for a ten year plan to achieve the MDGs • Strengthening of poverty reduction policies by positioning to prepare an MDG-based PRSP in 2005 which is the PASDEP. • Intonation of preparations for a comprehensive financing strategy to achieve the MDGs • Monitoring to development performance by linking SDPRP indicator and intermediate MDGs targets and • Improvement in the quality and quality of aid delivery through the alignment of development assistance around PRSP and MDGs priorities.
The MDGs Needs Assessment Methodology paper (Millennium project 2004-cited in MoFED (2005) suggests that low-income country Governments follow the stage-planning processes to alight their respective domestic policies strategies and programs with the MDGs. The first stage is the conduct of a needs assessment that compares its current situation with MDGs targets and thereby by identifies the combination of Public investments that would enable the country to meet the MDGs by 2015. The second stage of the planning process is the formulation of along-term policy plan for achieving the MDGs building up on the results of the MDGs needs assessment. The third stage in the planning process is for each country to formulae its medium term (3-5 years) PRSP based on long-term plan.
In the case of Ethiopia, the third year (2004/05) of implementation of the first SDPRP (2002/03-2004/05) has just completed. The policies, strategies and programs upon which the SDPR is built are still going to relevant for time span PASDEP and even beyond the time horizon of PASDEP is going to be 5 years (2005/06-2009/10) (MDGs Needs Assessment: MOFED, 2005). The preparation of the first Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) in 2001 broadened engagement among the government, donors and the UN and laid the foundation for subsequent collaboration around the MDGs. The MDGs were not a prominent part of the global development debate at that time. The government focused on national and sub-national structures to support the PRSP.
The MoFED led the preparatory process chairing inter-Ministerial PRSP steering and technical committees that examined sectors and under lying issues. The Ministry’s WMU coordinated with line ministries on content. This structure was repeated at the sub national level; where regional planning Bureaus were responsible for coordination (UNDP, 2006) The MOFED is responsible for and coordinates the PRSP and the MDG processes. With in the ministry the WMU coordinates with Ministries on sector issues and reports. The following figure shows the structural organization of institutions for localizing the MDGs Figure 1: Institutional structure for the PRSP and MDG process in Ethiopia Source: UNDP (2006)
The SDPRP uses many of the MDGs targets as benchmarks and utilizes the indicators to monitor progress towards the goal. In the MDGs report (2004), it is stated that the MDGs are embraced fully in the documents of Ethiopian Government and there are commitment to achieve them. Thus, from this perspective, the MDGs are timely and relevant for Ethiopia given the massive poverty and that is fully entrenched in the society, the appalling human misery that accompanying this level of poverty. According to MDGs report similar to harmonizing MDGs with Government goals, there is also an attempt to harmonize the follow-up and monitoring for targets set in the SDPRP with the MDGS. This is partly facilitated by harmonization of the MDGs with the MDGS.
This is partly facilitated by harmonization of the MDGs with SDPRP targets According to the Report, there is an on going discussion and working arrangement about monitoring of MDGs and SDPRP targets between the MOFED and the Development Assistance Group- (DAG) co-chaired by UNDP and World Bank. (UNDP 2006). Synchronization of monitoring approaches further integrated the PRSP and the MDGs. Monitoring the PRSP and the MDGs requires similar data. The Government saw that in duplication monitoring would impose on Ethiopia resources and advocated on system. (Tsehaynesh 2007) The donor consortium proposed linking the annual targets and performance indicators of the PRSP policy matrix, which form the basis of the annual progress reports, with MDGs targets (UNDP) (2006) Linking NPRS to the MDGS).
Further, in the MDGS Report (2004) it is stated that a closer examination of the components of the targets in the SDPRP reveals that there is a great deal of harmony with MDGS. The objective of redacting poverty and hunger fully tally with MDGs. This is accompanied by a fiscal and monetary stance consistent with attaining the targets in the SDPRP. As far as intentions go, the Government has been turning its development goals (and policy stance) to international of the issues, according the Report of 2004. In 2005 the World Bank conducted a study based on simulations to analyze the consequence of the Ethiopian MDGs strategies and its alternative scenarios.
According to this study it suggested that suggest that a considerable expansion in government consumption and investment is required to meet the different goals and targets of the MDGs. (World Bank, 2005) Under the World Bank MDG scenario, the share of government demand in GDP increases from 30 percent in 2005 to 50 percent 2015, while foreign aid per capita reaches US$70 in 2015, which is more than a quadrupling relative to the level in 2005. (World Bank, 2005) Both simulations are constrained to $50 in foreign aid per capita in 2015 and they are also comparable in terms of the present value of total foreign aid during the period 2006-2015 (reaching around US$ 22 billion, compared to US$ 32 billion for the core MDG scenario) (world Bank 2005).
The scenario with a human development focus reaches the non-poverty MDGs but falls short of the poverty target (with a 2015 rate of 27 percent as against the target of 19 percent) and requires supplementary domestic taxation (raising the tax share in GDP from 20 to 26 percent). (World Bank, 2005)The scenario focused on infrastructure produces more rapid GDP growth, reaches the poverty target (with a 2015 rate of 18 percent) and realizes more than 90 percent of the gain required for the other MDGs relative to the situation in 1991. While the parameters underlying these simulations are highly uncertain, the findings nevertheless point to trade-offs that should be considered in the development of Ethiopia’s MDG strategy. (World Bank, 2005) 1 Overview of the Ethiopian education Education is not exactly new to a country that is home to an ancient civilization.
Ethiopia is one of the few nations in the world which have their own indigenous alphabets with unique structure of traditional education especially with church education. But the emergence of the modern Ethiopian educational system was not from the traditional education but it was as a result of the growing international ties. (Tsehaynesh 2003). The modern education began to make its marks on the social scenes when the catholic and protestant missionaries had introduced subjects in modern education as a secondary function of their main goal of disseminating their respective denominational doctrines particularly in northern parts of the country. Teshome, 2007) There were positive actions in expanding modern education afterwards but the major breakthrough was the establishment of the Ministry of Education and Fine Arts in 1947 with the assignment to take responsibility of the overall future development of education in the country under the direct supervision of the emperor. The 1940s, though characterized by no definite policy and strategy for the development of the educational system, important foundations had been laid in the history of education system of the country. To mitigate the problem of teachers in the primary and secondary schools a beginning was made in the training of primary school teachers and an in service teacher training program was also initiated in which provincial teacher were required to participate during the rainy season, when they are in recess. Another important point about this period was the fact the Britain had a tremendous influence on education.
Much of the orientation and syllabus of the education had titled in favor of British way. So that English took the lead as the language of instruction. In the late 1940s it was already felt that the expansion of the educational sector was hampered by scarcity of resources. Hence, in 1947, the imperial government proclaimed the educational Tax proclamation, aimed at enabling each province to development education in self-supporting bases, subsequently; the educational expenditure proclamation was issued so as to create the local educational Board, which ensures the implementation of Educational Tax Proclamation, aimed at enabling each province to develop education in self-supporting bases.
Subsequently, the Educational expenditure proclamation was issued so as to create the local educational Board, which ensures the implementation of Educational Tax Proclamation (Tsehaynesh 2003). At the beginning of the 1950s, the expansion of the educational system was already constrained by the organizational and resource capacity of the country. The report of the U. S. operation Mission in Ethiopia in 1951, for example, indicated the prevailing problem in the number quality of teachers and the limited material capacity. The report also identified the low starting level of the educational system relative to the total population. Following this report, the Advisory Group of the U. S. which came to Ethiopia in 1953, together with the officials of the Ministry of Education formed a committee changed to undertake comprehensive report in 1955, entitled-Ten year plan for the controlled Expansion of Ethiopian Education. Until this moment, the country’s development has proceeded on the basis of a one-year plan. It was in 1957 that the five-year plan was introduced. However, before the plan showed any tangible effect, the second five year plan had just begun in 1972 when the 1974 revolution suddenly appeared on the scene. One of the important challenges in the development of the Ethiopian educational system in the 1960s and 1970s came from the conference of African states in 1960 hosted by Ethiopia.
The conference by analyzing the then existing situations of education most African countries proposed a short term and long term plan for development of education in the continent. In this conference, it was found that the Ethiopian educational system was in its early stage. Ethiopia’s participation rate in the primary level was 3. 8 percent, while it was 0. 5 percent in the secondary level. (Fasil, 1990 as cited in Teshome 2007). This Third Five Year Development Plan (TFYDP) proposed the need for expansion of education to the rural poor, a more relevant curriculum to the tradition of the people and the economic system of the country. It was also aimed to facilitate a national medium of Amharic, and upgrading the quality of education in the country (TFYDP, 1968-1973).
The plan aimed to increase participation rate to 18 percent in primary schools, of which 6-percent would enter to junior secondary schools. Enrollment in the secondary schools was planned to increase by 67 percent at the end of the plan period. The Addis Ababa African educational conference, decided in 1972 to undertake a comprehensive, national study of the country’s educational system then known as the “Education sector Review”. The main aim of the study was to make a general review of Ethiopia’s educational system on the one hand, and to suggest ways in which education could contribute to the country’s development and unity on the other (Tsehaynesh 2003).
Beginning with the dawn of the revolution in 1974, it was proclaimed that the country’s education should reflect the interests and needs of the revolution with the proclamation in 1976 of the National Democratic Revolutionary Program. The fundamental aim of the country’s educational program was declared to be in the service of eradicating literature and art. In 1975 the growing private schools were nationalized, but the foreign community and Mission schools were not. By the same year, it was proclaimed that teachers and students of higher institutions sent out for development activities and the “Development-Through-corporation-Campaign” program, as a result of which educational process was interrupted for two years through out the country.
Since the educational process was so geared as to expand primary school education, the number of primary schools that was about three thousand in 1973/74 grew more than double to about 8000, while student enrollment increased to about 34 Percent. When compared to 12 Percent enrollment level before the revolution, this figure was very high on the contrary because of the decrease in the budget allotted in the 1980s for education to 90 Percent from the 17 Percent which was allotted in 1974 and the quality of education was severely affected and put in to question (Teshome 2007). This deterioration in the quality of education was reflected in the shortage born of textbooks and teacher.
Other than the problem of quality in the country’s educational system at the time, one other thing that must be taken note of is the act that, no sooner had the revolution erupted than America’s influence on the country’s educational system was taken over by that the Soviet Union. This makes if the fourth time for the educational system to come leaned the way of yet another foreign influence. (Teshome 2007) As pointed out above, because the educational system was in such a critical condition, in 1983, the government deemed it necessary to establish a committee to undertake what was known as “Evaluative Research of the General education System”.
The aim of the research was to evaluate the state of the country’s primary and secondary education, identify specific problems and suggest solutions. Accordingly, various committees were organized to look in to the different aspects of the problem, carried out an extensive study and presented their findings, along with the solution, by 1986. However, the evaluation hardly given any attention instead the government acted on its own and issued its own ten-year perspective plan. In the immediate aftermath of the removal of the regime from power and the establishment of the transitional government in 1991, a committee for the design of an educational policy aimed at transforming the existing educational system was established.
The result was the preparation of the document known as “Education and Training Policy” which was implemented as of 1994. After the 1993/94 political change, the economic policy of the country changed from socialist oriented to an open market economy. Structural Adjustment program (SAP) has been introduced in the education sector the number of schools contracted for all levels of education has increased, the teacher student Raton has decreased significantly and students are all owed to study primary education in their own language. The past and present status of the country’s can be assessed by using indicators such as literacy rated, educational expenditure and others
The literacy level before 1974 was less than 10 percent and this level dramatically increased between 1979 and 1989 and it reached 76 percent in 1990 (MOE,2005). The transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) in 1991 provided objective of education for the transition period which was built upon the policies of the former government except the latter’s socialist orientation. These are education for production which relates practical and technical skills to attitudes expressing respect and love for labor education, for scientific conscience, emphasizing an environment, for inquiry and experimentation and, for the application of scientific methods to all aspects of learning.
However, since 1994 a new education and training policy has been adopted taking into consideration the structure of education as it evolved overtime and the long term objectives set for it. In order to implement the objectives of “Education and Training Policy” the government of Ethiopia has developed various strategies, which are pertinent to the overall development objectives in general and education development program in particular. Those strategies have focused on reorientation and medication of the existing educational system revising and improving curriculum that fits within the educational objectives set out in the education and training policy of Ethiopia.
In addition the transitional government of Ethiopia declared a new education policy which encouraged private investment in education. The TGE declared that the government will create the necessary conditions to encourage and give support to pirated investors to open schools and establish various educational and training institutions. The new education and training policy envisages a vocational technical training system parallel to the academic system. The policy also allows among other things diversity in the languages of instruction at the primary level. From more than 80 ethnic groups in the country so far about 17 have started using their languages as a medium of instruction. (Fasil, 1990 as cited in Teshome 2007).
Education (training) is one of the sectors in which the private investors can make significant contribution to the formation of human capital and to ensure sustainable development. The bulk of the Ethiopian education is largely financed by the government. The budgetary allocation to education has been rising in recent years amounting to 11. 2 percent of the entire government budget in 1995/96. Existing human resource situation in the country is largely a reflection of the current socio-economic situation of the county. The major socio-economic indicators calculated for the country clearly indicate that its human resource is found at a very low level of development. (Getahum tafesse:1997). One of the major indicators that show human resource conditions is education. More than 75 Percent of the population is illiterate.
The overall literacy rate in 1996 was 23 Percent (MEDa,C, 1997). The education sector in Ethiopia is beset by a number of problems, not lest of which is capacity limitation. Access to education is very limited. According to MEDaC statistics, for example, only one out of four primary school age children are in primary school and tat three-fourth of school age children do not go to school. Further more secondary education is accessible to less than two out of ten youths, while tertiary education is open only to a small fraction of those who have completed secondary education. (Getachew mulualem, 2000). The new Education and Training Policy (ETP) has focused on expanding access to educational opportunities.
The educational reforms are intended to achieve universal primary enrolment by 2015, with local language used as the language of instruction in the primary grades. (Lasonen 2005) In addition to addressing the formal education system, the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP), adopted by the Government in 1997, included non-formal education (NFE) opportunities for dropouts and out-of-school children and young people. The concept of NFE provides a second chance for all, through distance education, functional literacy and continuing education. The educational reforms have been reshaping the structure of the school system. Preschool education lasts two years and caters for children aged 4-6 years. However, it is not compulsory. Only a small proportion of children go to preschools.
Primary education now lasts eight years (age group 7-14); it is divided into two cycles, a first cycle (Grades 1-4) and a second cycle (Grades 5-8). The goal of the first cycle is functional literacy, while the second cycle prepares students for further studies. General education as a whole consists of eight years of primary education and two years of general secondary education (Grades 9 and 10), followed by two years of upper secondary education. General education is completed at the end of the first cycle of secondary education (Grades 9 and 10), and intends to enable students to identify areas of interest for further education and training.
The second cycle of secondary education (Grades 11 and 12) will prepare students for continuing their studies at the higher education level or for choosing a career. Technical and vocational training is institutionally separate from the regular educational system, forming a parallel track. Training is offered at the exit points of the general education system (Grades 4, 8 and 10). Higher education institutions comprise two universities, thirteen colleges (including teacher training establishments) and three institutes (a polytechnic, a health sciences and a water technology institute). Diploma programmes generally last two years. First-degree courses take four to five years of university or college studies to complete.
The Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP) – In the last ten years, development cooperation has favored integrating individual projects with sector-wide programmes designed by the host country. Instead of each project being an independent entity, cooperation projects are adjusted to the overall goals and strategies of the given sector. (Lasonen 2005) The Education Sector Development Programme provides a sector-wide policy and implementation framework for educational development. (MOFED 2007) One of its main purposes is to coordinate government and donor inputs in the educational sector. The Government set down its educational sector policy in the ETP and the Education Sector Strategy (ESDP) in1994.
The Ethiopian Ministry of Education introduced the ESDP in 1997, and its action plan (PAP) (FDRE, 1998b) and implementation plan (PIM) (FDRE, 1998c) in 1998. The ESDP has covered the first five years, 1997/98 – 2000/01, of a 20-year plan. The second period of the ESDP (ESDP II) started in the school year of 2002/03 (2002/03 – 2005/06). Currently, the program is in its third phase, spanning the period from 2005/06 to 2009/10. The ESIP process was used to draw up a budget for implementing educational policy, coordinated at national level. As regards the donors, the ESDP process has been considered to offer the advantage of providing them with an overview of the developmental needs of the sector. (Lasonen 2005) The Government started its own part of the ESDP programme in 1 July 1997, when the new budget year began. Objectives – The ESDP and the PAP have addressed the problems of access, equity, efficiency, planning and management capacity, quality, and relevance in education, which have been foci of their objectives and strategies. (Lasonen 2005) The ESDP envisaged an expansion of primary-school enrolment from around 22 per cent in 1995/96 to 50 per cent in 2001/02, and an increase in financing for education through a rise in public expenditure on education to 4. 6 per cent. This translated into an increase in the number of children in primary schools from 3. 38 million to 7 million. Lasonen 2005) The ESDP recognized that the capacity of the teacher training system must be enhanced in order to provide the qualified teachers necessary to teach the greatly increased enrolment. It also noted the need to improve the quality of the teachers, to pay attention to gender balance among students and teachers, and to improve the student-textbook ratio at the primary level from 5:1 to 1:1. The ESDP has had the aim of promoting equity by achieving a gross primary education enrolment rate of at least 25 per cent in under-served regions, raising female participation in primary education from 38 to 45 per cent, and increasing the proportion of female teachers from 25 to 35 per cent in 1997/98-2001/02. (Lasonen 2005)
Strategies and Components – The Government has undertaken reforms and actions to achieve these objectives related to the ESDP in the following areas (FDRE, 1998b as cited in Lasonen , 2005) : (1) basic education (access, equity, quality, and out-of school children and adults); (2) secondary education (access, quality, continuing education for out-of school young people and adults); (3) technical and vocational education and training (relevance and quality interventions); (4) teacher education (increasing the proportion of qualified teachers, retaining qualified teachers, and improving the quality of teacher training); (5) tertiary education (improving efficiency, increasing the number of engineers, educators, health workers and public administrators, and implementing a strategy for iversifying the resource base for tertiary education); (6) educational materials (proportion of recurrent expenditure on non-salary items, such as textbooks); (7) institutional development in the Ministry of Education, the regional education bureau and the central education agencies, such as the Education Media Agency (EMA), the Institute of Curriculum Development Research (ICDR), and the National Organization for Examinations; (8) distance learning; and (9) capacity building. 2 Achieving Universal Primary Education in Ethiopia Goal 2 is a component of human development and vital to the all-rounded effort of eradicating poverty and hunger in Ethiopia.
For its entire history, Ethiopia adopted a free education policy up to the tertiary level. This in itself is an acknowledgement by successive governments and society that education is an opportunity that should be made equally available to all citizens. Despite this fact, Ethiopia substantially lags behind most countries in sub-Saharan Africa in terms of coverage and distribution. Thus, education is a key development goal central to the anti-poverty struggle being waged in Ethiopia. In this regard, the challenge is not just that of building schools in all parts of the country, but also to ensure that local communities use the schools to full capacity.
Given the extreme poverty, and the reliance on child labor for survival, efforts by the Government co
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