Human vision is the most important senses which help the people to interact with real world. In this paper we introduce a wearable shoe designed to guide the visually challenged people by navigating in day to day life at outdoor, pedestrian by providing vibration and voice instructor to identify the object and location tracking in their pathway. Here the navigation system which gives the guidance to blind person by providing the audio navigation assistance to reach destination. In this system it detects solid and liquid obstacle sending respective instruction to the blind person through voice message and the system provides instructions to the blind to migrate various places using the GPS and GSM system.
By using this function neighbors of blind user can able to locate their place easily without any panic. To avoid collision in pathway ultrasonic sensor will be interfaced with the arduino.
Keywords: Ultrasonic sensor, water sensor, GPS, GSM, Arduino, IR sensor, Text to speech converter, Motion sensor
There are about 38 million blind people and 242 million people with low vision which accounts to 280 million visually impaired people worldwide.
Few blind peoples has unique technique to just like bats by using sonograph for identifying object detection and distance recognition .In India there are more than 15 millions of blind people where every year people needs 2.5 lakhs of donated eyes but eye banks collect around 25000 of eyes only in that 30% of eyes can’t be used . In this paper, we proposes a navigation system that include wearable shoe capable of detecting obstacles and providing feedback in outdoor.
Here visually challenged people are more efficient in hearing and possesses strong perception than normal people, hence the system focused on alerting the user through vibration and speech recognition.
The Visually challenged use wearable shoe which can be used to detect solid as well as liquid obstacles. The system uses Arduino Uno Board which provides with microcontroller Atmega 328P.
Here the microcontroller detecting entire signals from various sensor used. An ultrasonic sensor used to detect the object obstacles in solid state. The range of ultrasonic sensor 100cm will be detected. The sensor which sends input waves to the surface when the person walks on pedestrian and able to detect the solid obstacles. Whenever the obstacles are detected a voice instructor is send to the blind people phone with the help of Bluetooth chip which is mounted on arduino.
If the obstacles are nearer to the blind people then the arduino Uno sends a warning in the form of audio recognition. It allows detecting the sound at different buzzer according to solid and liquid obstacles. This shoe which includes the vibrator as a warning to stay away from any obstacles. Here the wearable shoe allows the blind people to avoid liquid obstacles.By using the water sensor liquid obstacles will be detected .The liquid obstacles will be notified when the wearable shoe comes in contact with liquid. At the press of single button the system allows the users to locate their location using the GPS module and sends an alert message to the registered contact of family members to locate the blind person’s exact location.
Navigation assistance for visually impaired (NAVI)  refers to systems that are able to guide blind people. The idea of the system is designing and developing shoes and portable audio Playing device in order to assist blind person to move on different surface and in different path. Blind Assistant Navigation System  will guide a blind or visually impaired person to navigate independently inside an enclosed environment such as home. A system called Voice Assisted Navigation System for the Blind  develops a smart and intelligent cane which helps in navigation for the blind people .Many researches are being conducted to build navigation system for blind people . This paper mainly focuses on sensing of environment to detect obstacle to visually challenged people and warning about the obstacle by means of vibration along with voice feedback. The system used IR sensor, RGB sensor  and arduino to detect obstacle and for processing However IR sensors are highly directional and cheaper compared to others but it can use to detect only one type of obstacle like paper.
There are four main modules in our system. They are Arduino Uno, Ultrasonic sensor, Water sensor, and GPS modules
It is used in real time applications. The arduino Uno board is a microcontroller based on the Atmega328.It consists of 14 digital input/output pins in which 6 can be used as PWM outputs. It is a16MHz ceramic resonator and it consists of ICSP header, a USB connection, 6 analog inputs, a power jack along with a reset button. It has operating voltage 5V, input voltage 7-12 v, clock speed 16MHz.
The function of this module to identify the distance between the object infront of the sensor by alerting through sound. Here, ultrasonic sound is emitted from sensor in particular direction. If any object is present in front of the sensor the sound is reflected back to the sensor. However we can able to calculate time takes for sound to reflect back. This is done by
Here the HC-SR04 Sensor is used which has 4 pins -VCC, ground, Trig, echo. Here Trig is used to send ultrasonic sound and echo gives us to reflect back the sound. The operating voltage of sensor is 5V.
Water sensor is designed for detecting the liquid leakage, level of water can be identified and even it can able to sense the rainfall. It can be used to detect the volume, presence or absence of water. The voltage operates at 5V.
This module is used to locate the coordinates of the person wearing this device. And this which navigates the person to constantly tracking the people where they present. Whenever the panic button is pressed it will locate the user’s location with their coordinates and request is sent to GSM module through message.
The complete system is integrated in printed circuit board which is connected with water sensor, ultrasonic sensor that is fitted in shoe which is worn by blind person
The ultrasonic sensor which is placed in foot of the shoe which will be pointed in the direction of the user of his or her foot. This ultrasonic sensor will capture the object by sending signals and calculate the distance of the nearer objects. If any obstacles is located then it will passes or sent the data acquired to the arduino for further processing.
Fig 1 Various component of the proposed system
Fig 2 Signal reflected back after hitting obstacles
The ultrasonic sensor which is used to detect the pit and also to assist in climbing up and down staircase .The sensors are placed in the height of 10cm,15 cm, 20cm and 40 cm from the ground .If the blind person moving towards the stair it gives the audio information to the user as” Staircase ahead”. While started moving towards staircase it informs as “up stair case” while the user get down from the stair case “down staircase” it gives intimation to the user .
The height of the obstacle can be detected from the shoe with respect to ground .if there is obstacle at a height of 45cm at a distance of 30cm from the sensor ,then the sensor gives the information that from present place to the object will be intimated the microcontroller that obstacle is being detected by the sensor. It informs the user as “There is an obstacle at distance of 30cm with height of 45cm” it gives “bend down “information to the user.
The motion sensor has been detected by emitting infrared rays depending on the sequential reception of infrared rays in the two sensing elements will be detected by the motion of object. It gives the information to the user to cross the road only when the green signal is on. By using the motion sensor it helps the visually challenged people to guide to cross the roads in the traffic easily .It can detect up to distances of at least 15 feet from the ground surface.
Fig 3 position of motion sensor in foot
The motion sensor has a view angle of 95 °.Here three motion sensors has been positioned at right, left and front side of the foot of the user and it totally covers an angle of 285°.
In this work the smart assistive and acoustic wearable shoe not only support the visually challenged in navigation but also it able to detect the current location. Since blind user they have an opportunity to forget their pathway so it is ultimate aim to know about their current location with coordinates will help to reach safer location. For this purpose we implement global positioning system (GPS) is used. The GPS is processed by the microcontroller and provides voice information through the micro headphone to the user. By using GSM it gives information to neighbors of his/her blind user which can able to locate their place easily without any panic.
Fig 4 Global positioning system for user
It is used to convey the information to the user of presence of obstacles at the different distances by alarming at the different time intervals for different distance. It also able to alert other people if they about to collide accidentally with pedestrian walkers
Here the guidance to user is done by using text to speech converter module. By using this module it intimates the user that the obstacles at different heights and distance and it convey information to the user it headphone socket .this will help the visually challenged people to move from one place to another place without any help of others they can travel accordingly to the information received.
The prototype of smart walking shoe has been the one of most important factor for visually challenged people it will be helpful in day to day life. Here this system at present is able to help the blind people to navigate through unknown environment .It creates user friendly environment for blind person to move in outdoor environment without any panic .The system is highly compact and robust for the user, it can be affordable for everyone. In future enhancement we can have an improvement by adding face detection for this system. Overall by making this system available at an economic price will help the visually challenged may have their easier life than before.