About Sigmund Freud And His Theories In The Fields Of Psychology

Sigmund Freud is considered to be one of the most important figures in the fields of psychology. His ideas about psychoanalysis were developed in the 1800’s but are still being used today by professionals in mental health fields. He was a personality theorist who relied heavily on biological aspects to back his theories. One of Freud’s theories is his psychosexual stages of development theory. This theory proposes that people go through stages that occur at different parts of their lives.

These stages, and how they navigate and develop through them can have effects on their personalities in the future.

Freud was born May 6, 1856 in Moravia, Czech Republic. His mother, Amalia Freud was 20 years younger than Jacob Freud, and the same age as Sigmund Freud’s half siblings. This family dynamic is said to have had a heavy impact on Freud’s theories and approaches to psychology. The family was Jewish but Freud self-proclaimed Atheist. Freud and his family moved to Vienna where Freud remained until 1938 when he was forced to go to London in order to flee the Nazis.

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He had originally wanted to go into the armed forced but anti-Semitism stopped him from doing that but instead he went and found his passion in physiology and neurology.

In 1894, Freud became very raped up in his studies and within that time he had a love affair with cocaine. Then in October of 1896, Freud endured a hard tragedy, his father’s death. His’s father’s death came at a time in the start of Freud’s professional career.

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He had just started analyzing dreams and his ideas of self – analysis. Freud’s father’s death played an important role in the newly cultivates concept of self-analysis. Freud did spiral into a great depression and anxiety state at this time of his life. Freud eventually married Martha Bernays and fathered six children. One of his children named Anna, Became his prodigy. Anna took care of her father up until his death in 1939 and contributed greatly to the field of psychoanalysis started by her father.

Freud went off to the University of Vienna at the age of 17. Freud had a peculiar theory on growth and development. Freud’s relied on instinctual drives to support his theory. He felt that every person had to gratify these five stages, oral, anal, phallic latency and genital stage. According to Freud, if a person didn’t successfully navigate through all these stages, at the correct age they will have issues later in life that corresponded with that stage. So one example would be, is if a pacifier was taken from them too early (oral stage) then they later develop an oral fixation which could manifest through excessive eating or drinking.

Freud came up with psychosexual stages to describe the personality development through a series of childhood stages. The first stage is the Oral stage which is birth to 18 months. During the oral stage, the infant is developing trust in the caregiver, sucking, eating, biting and chewing. The infant’s primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth. In this stage a child can form over-eating habits, a passive attitude, become aggravated as they get older. An example of the oral stage being unsuccessful is a child who did not have very much food growing up, and then becoming a binge eater when there is excess food available for them. Another example could be a child having a greater want to participate in oral pleasurable things such as smoking, drinking alcohol and kissing.

The second stage is the anal stage which is 18 – 36 months. It is the ability to control the body, pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training–the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence. Sigmund Freud said that success at this stage is dependent upon the way the parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive. However, some parents instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful, or destructive personality. While if parents are too strict on toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid, and obsessive.

The third stage is the phallic stages which is 3 – 6 years. Freud suggested that during the phallic stage, the primary focus is on the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females. Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother’s affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. While Electra complex is used to describe the desire to possess the father and the desire to replace the mother in girls. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage. Other psychologists disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women.

The fourth stage is Latency, which is the age 6 – Puberty. A phase of dormant sexual feeling, and during this stage children put their sexual energy towards things of a non-sexual nature such as athletics and social gatherings. During this stage, the superego continues to develop while the id’s energies are suppressed. Children develop social skills, values and relationships with peers and adults outside of the family. Freud was concerned that it was possible for children to become fixated in this stage. Fixation can result in immaturity and an inability to form fulfilling relationships as an adult.

The fifth stage is the genital stage, which ages from puberty to death. During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person’s life. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas. Freud believed that the ego and superego were fully formed and functioning at this point. Teens in the genital stage of development are able to balance their most basic urges against the need to conform to the demands of reality and social norms.

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About Sigmund Freud And His Theories In The Fields Of Psychology. (2022, Jun 05). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/about-sigmund-freud-and-his-theories-in-the-fields-of-psychology-essay

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