Pages 5 (1065 words)
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) ended the peace established between the North and South by the Compromise of 1850. It was proposed by Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois and repealed the Missouri Compromise. The act enforced popular sovereignty upon the new territories but was opposed by Northern Democrats and Whigs. It was passed, however, because President Pierce supported it. The purpose of the bill was to facilitate the building of the transcontinental railroad on a central route.
Republican Party (1854) organized in 1854 by antislavery Whigs, Democrats, and Free Soilers in response to the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act; nominated John C.
Frémont for president in 1856 and Abraham Lincoln in 1860
American or Know-Nothing Party opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying “I know nothing”.
The pro-slavery constitution suggested for Kansas’ admission to the union. It was rejected.
Following the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, pro-slavery forces from Missouri, known as the Border Ruffians, crossed the border into Kansas and terrorized and murdered antislavery settlers.
Antislavery sympathizers from Kansas carried out reprisal attacks, the most notorious of which was John Brown’s 1856 attack on the settlement at Pottawatomie Creek. The war continued for four years before the antislavery forces won. The violence it generated helped percipitate the Civil War.
Lawrence, KS 1855 – Where the pro-slavery /anti-slavery war in Kansas began (“Bleeding Kansas or Kansas Border War).
In 1859, the militant abolitionist _______ seized the U.S. arsenal at Harper’s Ferry. He planned to end slavery by massacring slave owners and freeing their slaves.
He was captured and executed. ______ also led the Pottawatomie Massacre
The caning of Senator Charles Sumner
__________ gave a two day speech on the Senate floor. He denounced the South for crimes against Kansas and singled out Senator Andrew Brooks of South Carolina for extra abuse. Brooks beat Sumner over the head with his cane, severely crippling him. __________ was the first Republican martyr.
James Buchanan 15th president, failure to keep the Union intact led to the Civil War
John C. Fremont an explorer, soldier, and politician known as “the Great Pathfinder.” In 1846, he assisted in the annexation of California by capturing insurgents, seizing the city of Sonoma, and declaring the independence of the “Bear Flag Republic.” In 1856, ______ became the first presidential candidate for the Republican party.
Election of 1856
Republican Party, Know-Nothing Party Democrat – James Buchanan (won by a narrow margin). Republican – John Fremont. Know- Nothing Party and Whig – Millard Fillmore. First election for the Republican Party. Know- Nothings opposed immigration and Catholic influence. They answered questions from outsiders about the party by saying “I know nothing”.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn’t sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Roger B. Taney
As chief justice, he wrote the important decision in the Dred Scott case, upholding police power of states and asserting the principle of social responsibility of private property. He was Southern and upheld the fugitive slave laws.
Abraham Lincoln little-known Illinois representative and lawyer who introduced spot resolutions and won the 1860 election
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
A series of seven debates. The two argued the important issues of the day like popular sovereignty, the Lecompton Constitution and the Dred Scott decision. Douglas won these debates, but Lincoln’s position in these debates helped him beat Douglas in the 1860 presidential election.
During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, Douglas said in his _____________ that Congress couldn’t force a territory to become a slave state against its will.
Harpers Ferry U.S arsenal seized by John Brown in his daring raid, eventually the arsenal was retaken and Brown was hanged
Election of 1860 Republican – Abraham Lincoln. Democrat – Stephan A. Douglas, John C. Breckenridge. Constitutional Union – John Bell. Issues were slavery in the territories (Lincoln opposed adding any new slave states).
John C. Breckinridge Nominated by pro-slavers who had seceded from the Democratic convention, he was strongly for slavery and states’ rights.
He was a moderate and wanted the union to stay together. After Southern states seceded from the Union, he urged the middle states to join the North.
Montgomery Convention marked the formal beginning of the Confederate States of America. Convened in ________, Alabama, and opening on February 4, 1861, the Convention organized a provisional government for the Confederacy and created the Constitution of the Confederate States of America. On January 7, 1861 the committee submitted a secession ordinance accompanied by a report in favor of immediate secession.
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36º30′ line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery, and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln, defeated it.
Lincoln’s First Inaugural
Written in a spirit of reconciliation toward the rebellious states, ___________ touched on several topics: first, his pledge to “hold, occupy, and possess the property and places belonging to the government”—including Fort Sumter, which was still in Federal hands; second, his argument that the Union was indissolvable, and thus that secession was impossible; and third, a promise that while he would never be the first to attack, any use of arms against the United States would be regarded as rebellion, and met with force. The inauguration took place on the eve of the American Civil War, which began soon after with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter.
Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson’s surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.
Jefferson Davis ______ was chosen as president of the Confederacy in 1861. Stephens was vice-president.