Essay, Pages 6 (1288 words)
The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectusfrom about 500,000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilisation, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilisation in South Asia. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.
Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century, large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company.
Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline. During the first half of the 20th century, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League.
The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. The origin of the name “Taj Mahal” is not clear. Court histories from Shah Jehan’s reign only call it the rauza (tomb) of Mumtaz Mahal. It is generally believed that “Taj Mahal” (usually translated as either “Crown Palace” or “Crown of the Palace”) is an abbreviated version of her name, Mumtaz Mahal.
The construction of this marble masterpiece is credited to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan who erected this mausoleum in the memory of his beloved wife, Arjumand Bano Begum, popularly known as Mumtaz Mahal, who died in AH 1040 (AD 1630). Her last wish to her husband was “to build a tomb in her memory such as the world had never seen before”. Thus emperor Shah Jahan set about building this fairytale like marvel. The construction of Taj Mahal was started in AD 1631 and completed at the end of 1648 AD.
For seventeen years, twenty thousand workmen are said to be employed on it daily, for their accommodation a small town, named after the deceased empress-‘Mumtazabad, now known as Taj Ganj, was built adjacent to it. Amanat Khan Shirazi was the calligrapher of Taj Mahal, his name occurs at the end of an inscription on one of the gates of the Taj. Poet Ghyasuddin had designed the verses on the tombstone, while Ismail Khan Afridi of Turkey was the dome maker. Muhammad Hanif was the superintendent of Masons. The designer of Taj Mahal was Ustad Ahmad Lahauri.
The material was brought in from all over India and central Asia and it took a fleet of 1000 elephants to transport it to the site. The central dome is 187 feet high at the centre. Red sandstone was brought from Fatehpur Sikri, Jasper from Punjab, Jade and Crystal from China, Turquoise from Tibet, Lapis Lazuli and Sapphire from Sri Lanka, Coal and Cornelian from Arabia and diamonds from Panna. In all 28 kind of rare, semi precious and precious stones were used for inlay work in the Taj Mahal. The chief building material, the white marble was brought from the quarries of Makrana, in distt.
Nagaur, Rajasthan. Top Religious Attractions The Golden Temple – Adherents of the Sikh religion need no introduction to their sacred pilgrimage seat. Sri Harmandir Sahib or the Golden Temple, named so due to the quintessential golden hue that the monument is bathed in, is laced by the equally sacred waters of the Amrit Sarovar or the Pond of Nectar. On a jewel-studded platform is the Adi Grantha or the sacred scripture of the Sikhs wherein are enshrined holy inscriptions by the ten Sikh gurus and various Hindu and Moslem saints.
Kerala Backwaters -The Backwaters of Kerala are the place meant for those in search of a peaceful moments amidst natural beauty. The main backwater destinations in Kerala are Kumarakom, Allepey, Cochin, Trivandrum and Kollam. Cruising along these backwaters on board the houseboats or Kettuvallom is one experience that is forever cherished by visitors to the state. India has always been a popular destination for travellers. The culture, tradition and lifestyle of the common masses and the grandeur and opulence of the royalty has attracted people to explore and feel the real India.
All these things combined with mysticism, spiritualism, yoga and Ayurveda make India a must visit destination on the world travel map. India tour is aimed at offering you the best of India. Whether it is the sandy desert of Rajasthan, the tranquil and serene backwaters of Kerala or the mesmerising beauty of the Taj Mahal Dhoti Dhoti kurta is the traditional Indian clothing of men. Unlike other dresses, it is an unstitched piece of cloth usually 5 yards long that is tied around the waist and legs. The knot is tied at the waist.
Dhoti is known by different names at different places such as Laacha in Punjabi, dhuti in Bangla. Indian Sari Sari is one of the most wonderful dresses worn by Indian women. Infact, when one thinks of a typical Indian woman, the first thing that strikes the mind is a woman clad in sari, who is wearing the solah shringar including bindi, chudi, kajal etc. history India is a land of ancient civilization. India’s social, economic, and cultural configurations are the products of a long process of regional expansion.
Indian history begins with the birth of the Indus Valley Civilization and the coming of the Aryans. These two phases are usually described as the pre-Vedic and Vedic age. Hinduism arose in the Vedic period. The fifth century saw the unification of India under Ashoka, who had converted to Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread in many parts of Asia. In the eighth century Islam came to India for the first time and by the eleventh century had firmly established itself in India as a political force.
It resulted into the formation of the Delhi Sultanate, which was finally succeeded by the Mughal Empire, under which India once again achieved a large measure of political unity. It was in the 17th century that the Europeans came to India. This coincided with the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, paving the way for regional states. In the contest for supremacy, the English emerged ‘victors’. The Rebellion of 1857-58, which sought to restore Indian supremacy, was crushed; and with the subsequent crowning of Victoria as Empress of India, the incorporation of India into the empire was complete.
It was followed by India’s struggle for independence, which we got in the year 1947. Weding An Indian Hindu wedding is strictly observed according to the ancient cultural norms laid down in the Vedas. In the Indian society a wedding is not just the coming together of two people rather two souls. In fact, a wedding also brings two families closer, which thereafter share a bond of respect and affection. As a result, there are a number of traditions and customs associated with the Indian Hindu wedding ceremony.
These traditions are the essence of the marital institution, thereby strengthening the significance, chastity and faith in the same. Rangoli Rangoli, one of the most beautiful and most pleasing art forms of India, is comprised of two words, ‘rang’ meaning ‘color’ and ‘aavalli’ meaning colored creepers’ or ‘row of colors’. Rangoli basically comprises of the art of making designs or patterns on the walls or the floor of the house, using finely ground white powder along with different colors. Numerous households in the Indian subcontinent make use of Rangoli designs for decorating the courtyard of their house.