Hydrothermal vents are fissure-like structures in the shallow or deep sea, they seep the Geo-thermally heated water to the sea floor. The vents form nearby active volcanoes, sea-mount and in continental plate boundaries (Stone et al, 2019). Two type of vents are present in ocean they are, black and white smokers, the black smokers are common one and which contain the sulfur and iron with vent water.

White smokers are those which liberate white colour smoke due to the presence of barium, calcium, and silicium.

This extreme unique environment is habitat for a number of organism including crabs, tube worms, prawn, shrimp, fishes, octopus etc. Vent water may be rich in iron, sulfur, barium, calcium or silicon according to the geology of the location.

Vent water play a significant role in maintaining the vent ecosystem. As most of the primary and secondary production is directly exposed to vent waters it affects the vent ecosystem. The ecology, biodiversity, physiology, anatomy of an organism in the vent ecosystem is unique.

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The deep sea and shallow water vent are present in the earth surface and they may be active or dormant.

The hot vent fluid react with cold sea water and oxygen rich water to form a chemical mixture which supports the chemo-synthesis in the deep sea (Charles E. O’Brien et al, 2015). Primary producers produce their food via chemo-synthesis, which helps to increase the biomass of the communities in such extreme environments.

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About Hydrothermal Vent. (2020, May 08). Retrieved from

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