The study aims to analyze the growth dynamics of the FDI. It intends to see whether the growth in FDI has any significant impact on the service sector growth and also investigates whether a growth in this sector causes the GDP to grow, also analyzes the significance of the FDI Inflows in Indian service sector.
The study also looks into the sub-sectoral dynamics and indicates towards the fact that the trade, hotels and restaurants, transport. storage and communications sub-sector contributes the most in the growth of Indian service sector.
FDI to developing countries in the 1990s was the leading source of external financing. It is one of the most important component of national development strategies for most of the countries in the world and an important source of non-debt inflows for attaining competitive efficiency by creating a meaningful network of global interconnections. FDI provide opportunities to host countries to enhance their economic development and opens new opportunities to home countries to optimize their earnings by employing their ideal resources.
India ranks fifteenth in the services output and it provides employment to around 23% of the total workforce in the country. The various sectors under the Services Sector in India are construction, trade, hotels, transport, restaurant, communication and storage, social and personal services, community, insurance, financing, business services, and real estate. Meaning: FDI stands for Foreign Direct Investment, a component of a country’s national financial accounts. Foreign direct investment is investment of foreign assets into domestic structures, equipment, and organizations.
It does not include foreign investment into the stock markets.
Foreign direct investment is thought to be more useful to a country than investments in the equity of its companies because equity investments are potentially “hot money” which can leave at the first sign of trouble, whereas FDI is durable and generally useful whether things go well or badly. Classifications of Foreign Direct Investment FDI is classified depending on the direction of flow of money. * Outward FDI:Any investment made by a country in other countries will account for outward FDI.
Where as, all the FDIs invested by other countries in that country is called inward FDI. Outward FDI, also referred to as “direct investment abroad”, is backed by the government against all associated risk. * Inward FDI : Inward FDI occurs when foreign capital is invested in local resources. The factors propelling the growth of inward FDI include tax breaks, low interest rates and grants. FDI is classified depending on how the subsidiary company works in par with the parent investors. * Vertical: Vertical FDIs happen when a corporation owns some share of the foreign enterprise.
The local enterprise could either be supplying the input or selling finished goods to the parent corporation. The subsidiary here helps the parent company to grow more. * Horizontal: When the MNCs kick off similar business operations in different countries it becomes horizontal Foreign Direct Investment. It is actually a cloning that is happening here. Both the countries enjoy the same share of growth. FDI IN INDIA After getting independence in 1947, the government of India envisioned a socialist approach based on the USSR system to developing the country’s economy.
The last decade of the 20th century witnessed a drastic increase in foreign direct investment (FDI), accompanied by a marked change in the attitude of most developing countries towards inward investment. FDI flows have grown in importance relative to other forms of international capital flows, and the resulting production has increased as a share of world output.. FDI in India has in a lot of ways enabled India to achieve a certain degree of financial stability, growth and development during recession.
This money has allowed India to focus on the areas that may have needed economic attention and address various problems that continue to challenge the country. The factors that attracted investment in India are stable economic policies, availability of cheap and quality human resources, and opportunities of new unexplored markets. Mostly FDI are flowing in service sector and manufacturing sector recorded very low investments. The investments in service sector enhanced the benefit of flow of funds to the home country. Presently India is contributing about 17% of world total population but the share of GDP to world GDP is 2%.
India has been ranked at the second place in global foreign direct investments in 2010 and will continue to remain among the top five attractive destinations for international investors during 2010-12 period, according to United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) in a report on world investment prospects titled, ‘World Investment Prospects Survey 2009-2012’. According to the fact sheet on foreign direct investment dated October 2010. Mauritius is the highest FDI investment in equity inflows with 42% of the total inflow followed by Singapore, USA, UK and Netherlands with 9%, 7%, 5% and 4% respectively.
Service sector is the highest FDI attracting inflows with 21% of the total inflows, followed by computer software and hardware, telecommunication and housing and real estate with 9%, 8%, 7% and 7% inflows respectively. A report released in February 2010 by Leeds University Business School, commissioned by UK Trade ;amp; Investment (UKTI), ranks India among the top three countries where British companies can do better business during 2012-14. According to Ernst and Young’s 2010 European Attractiveness Survey, India is ranked as the fourth most attractive foreign direct investment destination in 2010.