The relationship is set up when the company regular operation. With the company growing, it will have more and more employees. So communication and leadership is really important. The relationship is harmony so that the employees will more effective, communication is fully reflected whether good or bad of the relationship between employees and employers. Leadership has a big role in here. We define leadership as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.
Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness.
We need leaders today to challenge the status quo, create visions of the future, and inspire organizational members to want to achieve the visions. (Stephen P. Robbins, 1998). Leadership is a management which manage staff to do the business, and make it clearly and more effective. 2. 1 Background of Jusco With Diaoyu Dao event came out, the relationship between Japan and China is become worse and worse. China even occur boycott Japanese goods last year.
Many of Chinese people became mob to destroy Japanese enterprise. Most of patriotic personages were held the demonstration in different city in China.
They boycotted Japanese goods so that all of Japanese companies were going down in China. Jusco is Japanese company; Jusco is short for Japan United Stores Company. The various of Jusco companies are subsidiaries of AEON CO. Ltd. There was a JUSCO in Shanghai before, but it was dropped down finally because of poor management. In Guangdong, Guangdong JUSCO Co. , Ltd used the name “JUSCO” to operate the first JUSCO at 1996.
Now, there are 13 shops in Guangdong. It took the lead in the introduction of foreign advanced GMS (department store the supermarket) format mode, and in 2010 launched the SM (Food supermarket) formats.
Guangdong JUSCO has a sound management system and in 2005 obtained the ISO9001: 2000 quality management system certification; national “green market” certification in 2007, was one of the first to obtain the certification of retail enterprises; 2010, ISO14001: 2004 environmental management system certification, the retail business is the first to pass the certification. Adhering to the “everything for customers” business philosophy, Guangdong JUSCO has been thought to provide customers with security, peace of mind and trust of goods, services and a comfortable shopping environment for the mission, so that customers enjoy shopping.
Guangdong JUSCO business goods include: fashion clothing, household goods, sporting goods, home decorations, food, Japanese cuisine, fast food and other necessities. 2. 2 Research objectives 1. 2. 1 Definition of communication and leadership Communication is a slippery concept, and while we may casually use the word with some frequency, it is difficult to arrive at a precise definition that is agreeable to most of those who consider themselves communication scholars. Communication is so deeply rooted in human behaviors and the structures of society that it is difficult to think of social or behavioral events that are absent communication. Halavais, 2006). More and more countries open up their market in this modern world. Communication become very important to Jusco, due to relationship between Japan and China is getting worse. Leadership has been described as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. ” (Chemers M. 1997). Leadership is easy to understand that organize a group of people to achieve a common goal. Under this global world, every organization is need cross-culture leadership.
Cross-cultural psychology attempts to understand how individuals of different cultures interact with each other (Abbe, Gulick, & Herman, 2007). 1. 2. 2 To investigate the component for communications and leadership. Communications is a big problem in Jusco. This is common problem in China. AEON has been set up 18 Jusco in Guangdong, naturally, managers, leaders and employees all are Chinese. Otherwise, they must do the job under the working mode of AEON management. So communication sometimes is a big problem. Direction of communication is deciding how to communicate to each other.
We further subdivide the vertical dimension into downward and upward directions. (R. L. Simpson, 1999) sometimes, most of sales do not will to talk to Jusco’s managers. And I know, Jusco managers also do not want to communicate to Japanese employers. It is even more badly when the DIAOYU DAO event happened. Japan and China are in stalemate. Leadership is mainly cross-culture leadership. 1. 2. 3 Further problem To find out further research opportunities for current problem. With the Japan and China become more and more hostility. We have to find out how does Japanese organization do in China.
So we can research other Japanese company to have some more opportunities to compare Jusco. 1. 3 Research rationale I choose this topic because I was worked in Jusco as a red wine salesman last year, and I know this is Cross Culture Company, and its communication and leadership must be changed after the relation between China and Japan get worse. So I decide to use my MO knowledge to how it will be changed. Or keep the old style to manage. 2. Literature review 3. 3 Introduction Communication and leadership have a big role in management forever. Communication is decided whether make the company stay in the harmony situation.
This makes the organization more effective and standard. Verbal communication is important to Jusco, but non-verbal communication is also important to it. Jusco is cross-culture organization; Chinese managers need to talk to Japanese senior management. After DIAOYU DAO event, the relation between Japan and China is getting worse, Japanese and Chinese cannot have a nice conversation. So I want to find out the difference of two stages. Leadership is an ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. However, not all the leaders are managers.
Organizations need strong leadership and strong management for optimal effectiveness. So Jusco is the same. Jusco is customer-focused service operation. They have a lot of leaders in Jusco. Different apartment has different leader. However, a good leader can make it more effective. It also make customer more comfortable when customers shopping in Jusco. 3. 4 Main issue—communications Communication represents one of the most important tools that the leaders have at their disposal to perform their influencing of tasks. Its significance is such that some authors consider it as the “blood” that brings life to the organization. Paulo Nunes, 2011) In Jusco, communication is important thing, no matter employers or employees, they need to communicate to each other. Due to power distance is stay in the high level. Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. (Gert Jan Hofstede, 1965) Japan is in the high level of Power distance index. So do Jusco, senior managers have some power to manage and ask employees to do the job. However, Jusco is customer-focused service operation.
Sometimes, senior managers will ask others to serve customers not himself. They have their own duties. But they need to put customers at the first position. So this is the main problem in Jusco. And the communication is has the big usage for employers to avoid this situation happening. Communication has the general process. The key parts of this model are the sender, encoding, the message, the channel, decoding, the receiver, noise, and feedback. The sender starts a message by encoding a thought. The message is the real thing of the sender’s encoding. When we speak, the speech is message.
Our writing is the message. The movements of our acting and the expressions on our face are the message when we gesture. One of the suitablekinds of communications is organizational communication. In organizational communication, there is one kind of mode for Jusco: Formal small-group networks. Formal organizational networks can be very complicated. There are three kinds in this mode, chain, wheel and all channel. The more effective criteria are the networks wheel and all channel. Jusco is wheel mode. For example, one manager is managing drink, wine and so on. 3. Main issue—Leadership Leadership has main two kinds of theories. One is trait theories of leadership, and it is focus on personal qualities and characteristics. By 1990s, after research, studies and analyses, the best leader is unlike the normal people. They are special. But the particular traits that characterized them varied a great deal from review to review. (S. A. Kirkpatrick, 1991) Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as: intelligence, adjustment, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and general self-efficacy.
While the trait theory of leadership has arisen again, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. (Zaccaro, S. J. 2007). The other is behavioral theories. In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. (Spillane, James P, 2004) The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. According to three styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. Lewin, Kurt, 1939). Normally, some leaders may compare traits and behaviors to manage; however, they are still failing to manage. As important as traits and behaviors are in identifying effective or ineffective leaders and they do not promises to success. 3. 6 Theories used in Jusco While the communication model used in Jusco, if managers can use this kind of skills, employees can be pleased to accept the order and finish the job in a short time. Formal small-group networks is the normal communications mode exist in Jusco. I ever was a wine sales in Jusco, my group all are sales of wine.
The wheel relies on a central figure out to act as the conduct for the entire group’s communication; it simulates the communication network you would find on a team with a strong leader. 2. 5 Conclusion Above the literature review, we can understand the theories of communication and leadership. And figure out which kind of model can be used in Jusco. However, something I can know more in the Jusco senior management. So Ican not ensure the how the solve the problem just by this simplified concepts. 3. Research methodology. 4. 7 overall research design Step 1 Select Jusco as the object of study. |
Step 2 Use communication and leadership theories to clarify the usage of management system. | Step 3 Find materials about communication and leadership in Jusco. | Step 4 Organize the materials found before. | Step 5 Combine the viewpoints that have same directions. | Step 6 Add personal views in research paper. | Step 7 Come out the final research paper. | At first, you have to set up your research title. In this modern world, people pay attention to personal benefits from work, so how to make the communications effective and in a proper way can be a key element to achieve success for companies.
And leadership is making the company keep the direction keep on the right way. And make the company get more effective and achieve the goals as fast as possible. This is why I choose communication and leadership in Jusco, especially in the specific stage, after the DIAOYU DAO event. After deciding what title is, I begin to search information about communication and leadership which can support my research, and then finding opinions about the communication and leadership system in Jusco.
With collection of all the materials that I need in this paper, the step four is to organize them and find out what the authors’ opinions about communication and leadership in Jusco, even in Japanese organization. When clarifying the points from some experts. Communication has some usage for making the whole company staff harmony, and let the managersto know more about employees. Let the whole company become the one big thing, and stay in the high effective. At the end, you read all the references, and link the knowledge and make it to the net.
Figuring out why the communication and leadership in Jusco is so important and which kinds of mode are fit for Jusco. 3. 2 Ways to conduct literature search Key words| Source| Finding | Cross-cultural competence in Army leaders| From library books| Abbe, A. , Gulick, L. M. V. , & Herman, J. L. | An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates| From library books| Chemers M. (1997)| The process of communication| From library books| D. K. Berlo,| Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. | From library books| Empirical foundation. (Study Report 2008-01). | WIKIBOOKS
CONTRIBUTORS. | From library books| Halavais, Joe Petrick, Ashley Anker(2006)| Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind| From library books| Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov. | Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders. | UCD library| John Baldoni(2005)| Journal of Social Psychology| From library books| 8. Lewin, Kurt; Lippitt, Ronald; White, Ralph (1939). | Communications| Google research | Paulo Nunes, 2011| Vertical and Horizontal Communication in Formal Organizations| From library books| R. L. Simpson, 1986| Employment Relations| From library books| Rose, 2001. Acadermy of Management Executive| UCD library| S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke,| Towards a theory of leadership practice| From library books| Spillane, James P. ; et al. , Richard; Diamond, John (2004)| Essentials of Organizational Behavior| Text book | Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge(1998)| Trait-based perspectives of leadership| From library books| Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). | 3. 3 Research Approach Q1: Is it communication is important in Jusco between all the staff? A: YES B: NO Q2: In communication, which thing do you think is important? A: trust B: honest C: honor
Q3: Which thing will affecttheresult of the communication? A: skills of communication. B: parties of communications. C: place when having communication. Q4: Do Jusco do the research to know more about what the employees want? Write down your opinion. Q5: Do all the staff will have courage to communicate to the managers? Write down your opinion. Q6: If some problem happens between two apartments, how do you communicate under this question? Write down your opinion. Q7: How do you think the level of effective during working in the Jusco? A: high. B: normal. C: low.
Q8: How do you identify superior/subordinate relationship? A: very clear, I will report to superior. B: Superior sometimes will interpose my work. C: Often several superiors give the order at the same time. D: When I facing the problem, I do not know who I can ask. Q9: How do your manager to order your work? A: manager will show me the detail. B: manager will discuss with me when I am in trouble. C: manager normally do not discuss with us. D: I often confused when I get the order from my manager. E: other:______________ Q10:Do you often find nobody will be responsible for the job, how do Jusco take charge?
Write down your opinion. Question no. 1 to question no. 3 are identify is communication important to the employers or sales in Jusco. I want to know is it some problem in communication in Jusco staff. It helps to clear my thoughts that whether communication is barriers in Jusco between the employees. Due to superior/subordinate relationship is really complicated. At the same time, according to the communication process, I want to find out which process is something wrong. Like question no. 1, it will give all the staff a shake. They maybe will suddenly realize we are lack of communication during the work.
Question no. 2 is the same to question 1, just want to notice staff to think about the communication. The usage of question 3 is wanted to ask them whether communication will affect their work. What is the problem will come out if communication in a low level. Give something to them to think. And this serious of problems are more valuable after the DIAOYU DAO event come out. Due to Jusco is in embarrassing situation in China. Question no. 3 and question no. 4 are the same direction. After give 3 questions to wake you up and think about the communication in Jusco.
Comparing their real situation in Jusco, and research the information about the communication is it works out. And does it effective or not. These two questions both need to write down your own opinion, your own thoughts. These are staff real thoughts. According to it, maybe the management in human behavior of Jusco can change the structure to make the whole Jusco has more effective. Question no. 5 and question no. 6 are transition question; it is from communication questions to leadership questions. Questions no. 5 and question no. 6 are concern about communication and leadership.
It is not only asking staff the situation of communication, but also checks the leadership in Jusco. We can see the superficial current situation of leadership in Jusco. After I get the superficial information about the leadership, we will collect the information about evaluation of the effective. With the question no. 7, we check the standard of their effective. By this collection, we get this information and find out whether leadership in Jusco is good to use. Question no. 8 is mainly to check the sales and employees how to treat with their superior. Hence, it also evaluates harmony of communication between superior and subordinate.
If the relation is harmony, it has a lot of effect to affect the leadership exercise power. Question no. 9 has connection with question no. 9; question no. 8 is mainly collecting the information from employers and sales in Jusco. We can see the truth about the real working situation by opinions of employees and sales. According to their view, we have to do some evaluations to check the leadershipeffective or not. Question no. 10 is helps Jusco to improve their situation. Jusco is customers first company, if this situation coming up, all of employers and managers have to serve customers first.
This is vision of Jusco. If they all pass the job to others, no one serve customers. Customer will go away with his dissatisfaction and blame Jusco has the bad service. What the worse, he will complain or tell every friend he knows so that the bad image of Jusco has been set up. 3. 4 Sampling For sampling, I need to contact with Jusco. Each observation measures one or more targets, sampling have too methods and everyone should to be used in the proper way. They all are unique. They are demanded to suitable different situation become the characteristics difference.
Jusco as the biggest retail corporation in Asia, in Guangdong, it also the Top 3 of retail corporation. So Jusco is a big corporation, I think Simple random sampling is fit for Jusco. In general, I put one Jusco as the whole, Equal to the probability of each individual to be able to get through one by one extraction method to extract a sample of each extract this sampling method is simple random sampling. Why I choose simple random sampling? Due to Jusco have 26 stores in Guangdong province. Their cope is too big, so I have pretended their probability is equal. Hence, I choose the random one store has regular scale to do this research.
Even though, each Jusco has different sales, employees and managers. The mode of management in Jusco do not change, each Jusco is the same administrative mode, Advanced GMS – comprehensive department store supermarket retail business model. Normally, one GMS mode of Jusco has five hundred to one thousand staff. They divided into different departments. Each department I will find the 20 people to do this research. When they done their research, I gathering all the information, and continue to analysis. When I finished that, I will finish my goals and finish my all objective. 3. Data access and collection To do this research and make the sampling, I have to go to Jusco investigation in Guangdong province. However, you cannot go in the Jusco working area easily. It is lucky I was worked there before, I know the managers. With the top managers in supermarket agreement, I finally go into and do some survey. My main contact person is my friend who sells the red wine inside it. Contact people: Wang Hong 3. 6 Methods of data analysis After I finish my survey, I will use my organization behavior management and cross culture management to analysis Jusco.
How to communication and leadership will happen in it. The further I will analysis is what will affect them after the DIAOYU DAO events. 3. 7 Research limitation As a full time student in Singapore, we have little time to do the research. Due to the time is too short, I do not have enough time to make the scope large, and make is simplified. At the same time, I still have another course; my time will become shorter and shorter. Under this reason, maybe my point of view will short for one side. Maybe leadership will gather more information than communications.
In China many things are cannot show in the newspaper so the information collection is a big problem, and Chinese people do not say anything so clearly, especially in the relationship, during the research. The superior/subordinate relationship cannot record faithfully. Maybe subordinates are too afraid to answer the truth. And even more, English is not my first English, many words we need to figure out how to express my view of points. 4. Conclusion 5. 8 summary This essay is mainly to show that how communication and leadershipwill affect the work in the organization.
Different organization has their ownmanagement mode and their own culture. These are affecting the staff how to act in the company. According to the first part of communication, communication is basis skills in the human behavior. Communication process will show us the flow during two people communicates. Make the communication more effective is lead to the whole working flow more effective. However, there are some barriers to effective communication. Like filtering, selective perception. Emotions, information overload and so on. The next objective is leadership. Due to there is a big problem, about the relations.
Due to in China, the employee will very afraid of the boss, so if the employers want to get the feedback is a very difficult thing. So the communication skill is necessary, but without the communication skill, what can the employer get the information from is also consider in this part. And what’s effect will the relationship come up with. Managers must not be a leadership, everyone can do. However, Jusco in China, most of people are Chinese. Leadership means that you are my boss, you are my superior, I need to receive you order to do the job. So leadership in this, there is a lot of value to have this research.
The last part is how communication and leadership actually do in Jusco. How managers are good usage of these theories to manage Jusco working. 4. 2 Implications With the company growth up, and more and more employee will join with the company to help a company to give produce, and there will be one day the company become a global company then it will face the east and west different culture, and the relationship is not as simple as before, how can the employer deal with it. They need to use the tool of communication, and even developing their leadership to make he reach their personal goal.
China is depending on relations, this is a marvel country. Communication is a good weapon to flight during in this society. Leadership is one person who cans good use at communications and he has the ability to gather some people to achieve the goals. This is difference to order people to do the job. 4. 3 Further research opportunities Actually in China, relation is important thing. This is not only communication nor does leadership make it success. Every foreign company, need to do some research about relations. If you control this, you can live really well in China. Reference 1. Abbe, A. , Gulick, L. M. V. & Herman, J. L. (2007). Cross-cultural competence in Army leaders. 2. Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers 3. D. K. Berlo, The process of communication (NEW YORK: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1960), pp. 30-32. 4. Empirical foundation. (Study Report 2008-01). Arlington, VA: U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. 5. Halavais, Joe Petrick, Ashley Anker(2006): WIKIBOOKS CONTRIBUTORS. Free software Foundation, Inc. 6. Hofstede, Geert, Gert Jan Hofstede and Michael Minkov. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 3rd ed.
New York: McGraw-Hill. 2010. 7. John Baldoni(2005): Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders. McGraw- Hill. P1-24 8. Lewin, Kurt; Lippitt, Ronald; White, Ralph (1939). “Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates”. Journal of Social Psychology: 271–301. 9. Paulo Nunes, Communications, 2011,rehttp://www. knoow. net/en/sceconent/management/communication. htmretrieved 2013-1-20. 10. R. L. Simpson, “Vertical and Horizontal Communication in Formal Organizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly, September 1989, pp. 188-196. 11. Rose,2001. Employment Relations. UK: Pearcon Edmcati Ltd. 2. S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “leadership:Do traits matter? ” Acadermy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48-60 13. Spillane, James P. ; et al. , Richard; Diamond, John (2004). “Towards a theory of leadership practice”. Journal of Curriculum Studies 36 (1): 3–34. 14. Stephen P. Robbins and Timothy A. Judge(1998): Essentials of Organizational Behavior. Eleventh edition. Pearson Educated Ltd. 15. Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62, 6-16. Confirmation Certificate Congratulations! You have successfully completed the Library Plagiarism Quiz.
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