The assignment is to write a report about the recruitment and selection for a particular job role in the sports and leisure industry. The tasks are: to create a job advert and get my peers to act as applicants; go through the whole recruitment and selection process and at the end choosing the most suitable candidate out of those that applied; choosing the most suitable applicant and offering them the position; producing an induction and motivational programme for the chosen candidate. Sufficient research will be carried out to help the analysis of the recruitment and selection processes. There will be an evaluation judging the effectiveness of chosen approaches.
The Recruitment Process
Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organisation.
The Recruitment Process is when a business looks for and finds a suitable person to fill a certain job position. This includes job description, job adverts, person specification, application forms, short listing, dealing with references, assessing candidates, deciding on the most suitable candidate and then informing those who did not get the job. Businesses need to avoid discrimination by sex, race, disability or age during the recruitment process so that they do not get sued. This allows them to make sure the best candidate gets the job.
Firstly the business will need to draw up the Job Description. This usually includes the job title, location, information about the company, the job purpose, a detailed list of job requirements and skills, the salary and benefits, working hours, promotion prospects, who the employee will be responsible to and finally who the employee is responsible for. In order to draw up a suitable job description, the human resource manager interviews the current jobholder and the line manager so that they can do a job analysis. A job description is drawn up because it is important when carrying out appraisals, and it helps analyse jobs and training. It also helps with work force planning and pay determination. They can then use the job description to place the job advertisement.
EXAMPLE OF A JOB DESCRIPTION
Installation & Facilities Management
Installation & Facilities Manager
To provide administrative support within the Specified Group within the Technical Division. The post holder will be required to work flexibly, in a rapidly developing office environment. It may be necessary to assist, or cover for, other administrative staff from time to time.
The key duties of the post are as follows:
* Filing of correspondence in/out
* Setting up and maintenance of filing systems as and when required as works progress
* Preparing document transmittal forms based on a list of drawings/documents which the Group is required to issue
* Upkeep of the document/drawing register of all the Group contractors who have been sent documents/drawings and their issue
* Typing – Word skills for general preparation of letters/forms that the Group will issue, along with logging into the Group records system.
* User notifications for statutory/routine/unplanned for inspections/testing/repairs, etc.
* Arrange meetings, book and prepare meeting rooms and provide/arrange hospitality
* Once operational – helpdesk assistance
Plus other duties consistent with the grade as directed.
Because businesses change often the Job Description will inevitably change. An employee might need to do other jobs that are similar to their job if they are directed to do so by their management.
Next they will need to draw up a Person Specification using the seven-point plan, which was an idea from Alec Rodger. The seven points are:
1. Physique, health and appearance- is the person well groomed? Are their looks suitable? Are their dress sense, voice, hearing and eyesight suitable? Is their health in order?
2. Attainments- what type of educational and vocational qualifications do they have? What is their job experience?
3. General intelligence-What is the level of the person’s general intelligence (obtained through IQ tests)?
4. Special aptitudes- what special skills does the person have?
5. Interests- what are their interests and hobbies?
6. Disposition- do they tend to influence others? Have they got leadership potential?
7. Circumstances- what is their age group? Are they single or married? Are they mobile or not?
This usually requires managers to differentiate between essential and desirable qualities under each heading. For example five GCSE’s at a grade C or above might be essential for ‘Attainment’ to do a particular job, whereas two GCE A Levels might be desirable but not essential.
Then the job advertisement can be placed. To create the best advertisement you have to make sure that: the advertisement gives a clear picture of what the job entails, the advertisement sets out clearly where the job is located, the advertisement is focused enough to attract people with the right sort of qualifications for the post, the sort of people most likely to apply for the job are suitable, the advertisement indicates opportunities for job development and for personal challenges over time, that an applicant knows how to apply for a job and that the advertisement in its present form will screen out unsuitable applicants. The advertisement should be placed in a suitable place so that the people with the right qualities apply. Most advertisements include the job description, a brief description of the environment of the organization, the location of the organisation and the job, the salary expectation, the contact details, the minimum entrance qualifications, the required job experience, the fringe benefits and the organisational identity. A job advert should provide prospective candidates with information but should also deter people who are not suitable for the job. The presentation is also important as it gives people their first impression of the organization.
Many legal considerations need to be met when recruiting. The equal pay act 1970 states that there should be equal pay and conditions for people doing the same job and this would apply to the job advert. The Sex discrimination act 1975 states that employers can’t discriminate between potential employees on the fact that they are male or female. The 1986 sex discrimination act states that there must be a similar retirement date for both men and women. The race relation act 1968, 1976, 2000 states that there can be no discrimination against people of different colours, race, ethnicity or national origins. Finally the disability discrimination act 1995 and 2004 states there must be no discrimination at work, and that the employer must provide a suitable workplace for the disabled employees.
Here is a flow diagram of the recruitment process:
The Selection Process
Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons most likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements.
Firstly you have to draw up a shortlist of the most suitable applicants out of the large number that applied for the job. The people who draw up the shortlist use the job description, person specification and other sets of criteria to reject the people who are not right for the job. They are usually sorted into three piles of suitable candidates, possible candidates and rejects.
After this you would send out letters to invite the most suitable candidates to an interview. These letters set out where and when the interview will take place and anything that the candidate will need to do before the interview.
Usually, the interviewer creates forms for use during the interview including a list of questions to ask. Equal opportunities requirements state that the candidates must be asked the same questions. Sometimes the interviewer will also draw up a list of criteria for the candidates to meet. Also you will need copies of the interviewee’s application forms, CV’s, and cover letters and copies of the person specification, the job description and interview assessment schedules showing the criteria for the applicants.
Interviews are generally relaxed and comfortable so that the applicant can show their best side. A good way to start could be to ask questions about the candidate’s journey to the interview. The interview is a two-way process and although it is a way for the interviewer to find the best candidate for the job, it is also a way for the interviewee to make sure this is a suitable environment for them to be working in. The question asked should relate to the person specification and job description. Most of the time the interviewers will make notes to judge if the candidate meets the requirements. Also questions are asked that need detailed answers.
Some jobs involve testing to find out whether certain people have the right personalities to carry out specific types of work. A psychometric test is a way of assessing a person’s personality, drives and motivations. An aptitude test is used to find out whether a candidate is suited to carrying out a particular type of work and involve some form of stimulation of that type of work.
At the end of the interview, the interviewer should ask the interviewee if there is anything they would like to ask. Then the interviewer will explain how they will inform the candidate whether or not they got the job in question.
Normally candidates will be given feedback on how they performed in the interview. They should be told why they were not suitable for the post, but also tell them what they did well. This feedback should be seen as a positive process and help with the ongoing development of the interviewee.
After the most suitable candidate is selected, they will be informed of the choice and they will be asked if then still want the job. This is normally done over the phone straight after the decision has been made. Then the person will accept or reject the job.
Legal considerations need to be met when selecting aswell. The Sex discrimination act 1975 states that employers can’t discriminate between potential employees on the fact that they are male or female. The 1986 sex discrimination act states that there must be a similar retirement date for both men and women. The disability discrimination act 1995 and 2004 states there must be no discrimination at work, and that the employer must provide a suitable workplace for the disabled employees. The race relation act 1968, 1976, 2000 states that there can be no discrimination against people of different colours, race, ethnicity or national origins. Finally, the equal pay act 1970 states that there should be equal pay and conditions for people doing the same job.
Here is a diagram of the selection process:
Induction is a formal initiation of a new employee into a new organization or new position, the job they will have to do and the people they will have to work with.
After completing the recruitment and selection processes, the chosen candidate is sent all details that will be needed for the job. This will include the start date and time, place of work, who to ask for on arrival, details of social provisions and details of medical care and pension provisions. The employee could ask for a written statement of the terms and conditions of employment.
Induction normally includes giving them a tour of their workplace, teaching them about the aims of the business, giving them some background information about the company, teaching them about health and safety around the company (fire exits e.t.c), how to contact the company when they are absent, ill or late, an introduction to the various people they will be working with and making sure that they know if the person needs training or not. The Induction programme must be suitable for the candidate and also the job role.
An induction package would include the objectives for the induction programme, which would set put what you want the employee to get out of the induction. It would also include a timetable for the induction and an outline of the activities that they will have to carry out.
Induction is carried out because it allows a new employee to get acquainted with the company and the people in it, it teaches them about company policies, their rights, and the health and safety requirements, and finally it ensures that the employee starts working effectively and productively as soon as possible. By the end of induction the new employee aims to find out as much important information about the company as possible, find out what their part will be in helping the company run efficiently, feel comfortable and optimistic about working at the company and it will help them in personal development and finally find out about their rights and responsibilities.
Employees need to be conscious of what they need to do if they are going to be absent or late or if they are ill. If there are too many absences then it will begin to affect the performance of a team. Also if an employee knows they are going to be late then they need to inform management so that appropriate cover can be provided. Most organisation ask employees to get a note from the doctor to prove they have been sick, and a doctor’s certificate if they are away for more than five days.
If the new employee is unfamiliar with the software used in the company then they will have to be familiarised with it. Therefore the employee will need to talk through the software with the employee and, if this doesn’t work, send them for training. In some cases on-the-job training is more effective as it undertaken in the workplace and it therefore familiarises them with the computer in the workplace. However, in other cases, off-the-job training is more effective as it is away from the workplace and people who have correct qualifications train them.
Legal considerations also need to be met when inducting. The disability discrimination act 1995 and 2004 states there must be no discrimination at work, and that the employer must provide a suitable workplace for the disabled employees. The Sex discrimination act 1975 states that employers can’t discriminate between potential employees on the fact that they are male or female. The 1986 sex discrimination act states that there must be a similar retirement date for both men and women. The race relation act 1976, 2000 states that there can be no discrimination against people of different colours, race, ethnicity or national origins. Finally, the health and safety at work act 1974 which states that ‘it shall be the duty of every employer to ensure, so far as is reasonable practicable, the health, safety and welfare at work of all his or her employers’.
Motivation is applying what drives a person, so that they will want to work productively for your company. Everyone is motivated differently.
If a business had a motivated workforce then a businesses profitability will be boosted. Different factors of motivation will increase revenue and reduce costs. If an employee is motivated to increase their efforts then there will be higher productivity, if an employee is motivated to take pride in their work then there will be improved quality in work, if an employee is motivated to be loyal to company then there will be a reduced labour turnover and if an employee is committed to a company then it reduces absenteeism.
There are many different theories about motivation. Here are two:
1. A. Maslow- Hierarchy of needs
In 1954 an American psychologist Abraham Maslow had a theory about what motivated people in the workplace. He believed that all human beings had the same types of needs and this could be organised into a hierarchy of needs.
This was his hierarchy:
What people need
What businesses can offer
To achieve their full potential
Training, challenges and opportunities to develop skills
Gaining the respect of others; feeling valued; having confidence and self respect
Reward for achievement promotion and status
Being part of the group; giving and receiving affection and friendship
Love and belonging needs
Opportunities for teamwork; social facilities and positive work relations
Security; absence of danger and freedom from anxiety
High standards of healthy and safety; job security; absence of bullying
Food, water, air, rest and activity
Decent pay to enable needs to be met; acceptable hours and conditions
He said that firstly lower-level needs have to be met, but to avoid employees feeling irritated higher-level needs should also be met. If an employee feels irritated then they might be demotivated and nonchalant towards their work.
2. F. Herzberg- Two factor theory
In the 1950’s the American psychologist Fredrick Herzberg conducted research that asked about motivation. He asked 200 engineers and accountants about the factors in their work that caused job satisfaction and those that caused dissatisfaction. He used the results from his research to develop his Two Factor theory of motivation. In his theory two sets of factors motivate workers, and these were motivators and hygiene factors.
Motivator factors- These are factors that could potentially motivate workers by providing job satisfaction. They include a feeling that they have achieved something, praise and recognition of effort, interesting work, responsibility, opportunities for promotion and opportunities for self-improvement.
Hygiene factors- All factors that cause dissatisfaction are to do with the working environment. These include company policy, relationships with supervisors and colleagues, working conditions, pay and status and security.
There are many different financial incentives. These are:
* Wages, salaries and bonuses
* Profit sharing
* Share options
There are many different types of wages. Flat rate is when you get paid weekly or monthly and it is based on a set number of hours. Time rate is when you receive a set rate hour and then pay overtime if any is done. Piece rate is when you are paid for what is made as long as it meets quality standards.
Bonuses are paid if an employee has been working hard at times like Christmas when people are likely to work less hard as the holiday season comes in. Commission is a type of salary based on the percentage of sales made by a salesperson.
Profit Sharing is when employees are given bonuses based on the profit made by the organisation. This will help employees see that if the business is doing well, they will do well also. Share options are when employees buy shares in the business and then are rewarded according to how well the organisation is doing. This also means that they will get paid dividends as they are shareholders.
Non Financial Incentives
There are also many types of non-financial incentives. These are:
* Goal Setting
* Perks and status symbols
* Meeting training needs
Goal setting is when managers set goals for employees to work towards. This can make the employer feel like they’ve achieved something by reaching their set goal. A perks is when you get something extra in return for doing a particular job, and an example of a status symbol is having a sign outside you door. An appraisal is meeting between an employee and an appraiser, where targets are set, and also seen whether they manage to meet their targets from the period before that. Finally, meeting training needs is important; as it makes sure that the employee has a good knowledge of all the equipment they are working with.
Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre
The leisure centre chosen for this project is Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre, which is located on Watling Avenue in Burnt Oak.
Their indoor facilities include a state-of-the-art Wellness Health and Fitness centre with 100 pieces of the latest equipment, dance studio with an extensive group exercise programme, a crï¿½che, a 4 court badminton sports hall, basketball, trampolining, football, netball, gymnastics and an indoor facilities changing room. Their outdoor facilities include an all-weather pitch for 7-a-side football and hockey, one Junior 11-a-side and two 7-a-side grass football pitches, 2 outdoor tarmac areas for netball, basketball, football and tennis, and outdoor facility changing rooms.
Customer Service Advisor
I am recruiting for a Customer Service Advisor at the Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre. The Customer Service Advisors main job is to get people to join the gym. They have to be able to handle all different types of customers. They are expected to keep up to date with product and company policy changes in order to answer any customer queries. They have to have good communication skills, patience and common sense. They must be polite and friendly, calm, even when under pressure, thorough and accurate and finally they have to be interested in working with people. They have to be able to work as part of a team and on their own. They have to be over 18.
When advertising for a position at the Barnet Burnt Oak leisure centre, they firstly write up their job description. This tells us that the job is for a Customer Service Advisor, and that it is located at the Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre. It tells us some important information about the company, the job purpose, a detailed list of job requirements and skills, the salary and benefits of the job, working hours, promotion prospects, who the employee will be responsible for and finally who the employee will be responsible for. Next they draw up a person specification. They normally try to look for people who are patient and have good communication skills and common sense.
Firstly they try to recruit internally. The advantages of doing this are that it requires a shorter induction period, the employer will be more aware of the candidates skills and it is quicker and cheaper than recruiting externally. However the disadvantages of this are another vacancies will be created and this will also have to be filled and external candidates may be more suitable for the job. Therefore, if their internal recruitment is unsuccessful then they recruit externally and place an advert in the local press. There is no set qualifications needed to be a Customer Service Advisor but you have to be over 18 and you have to have a minimum of one to two years experience in any job.
At the Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre they hold open days where they invite people to the centre to fill in an application form, and then if they meet the criteria set out in the person specification then they are invited to stay for an interview. The interview is on a one to one basis. The candidates are asked about their relevant experience and qualifications and they are asked what they would do in a particular situation at the leisure centre. Each question asked is worth 12 points and they do not consider anyone whose answer is less than 8 points. If the person is unsuccessful then they are told straight away, otherwise they are told within 2 days over the phone. Then they do a shadow shift and they are set mini tasks over three days to help them decide whom they want to recruit. Other employees are asked what they think of the new employee and so there is a lot of teamwork involved in the decision.
When the most suitable candidate is informed that they have the job, they are invited back to the centre and they do on-the-job training. On-the-job training would be learning to use a certain database that is used at the leisure centre. Their skills and qualifications are monitored and if they need extra they are sent on off-the-job training course. Included in the induction process is health and safety, which includes showing them where fire exits are.
There are no specific motivational tools used at the Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre, just to be cheerful, and don’t force yourself to do it.
The Leisure Centre follows the Sex discrimination act 1975 which states that employers can’t discriminate between potential employees on the fact that they are male or female; the 1986 sex discrimination act states that there must be a similar retirement date for both men and women; the disability discrimination act 1995 and 2004 states there must be no discrimination at work, and that the employer must provide a suitable workplace for the disabled employees; the race relation act 1968, 1976, 2000 states that there can be no discrimination against people of different colours, race, ethnicity or national origins and finally, the equal pay act 1970 states that there should be equal pay and conditions for people doing the same job. If they do discriminate they are liable to be sued.
I decide that to understand more fully the stages within recruitment and selection, I had to take the role of an employer.
Firstly I drew up my Job Description. This included the job title, location, and information about the company, the job purpose, a list of job experience and qualifications needed, the salary, working hours, and finally the person that the employee is responsible to.
* Customer Service Advisor
* Barnet Burnt Oak Leisure Centre
* Burnt Oak
* Watling Avenue
About the company
Greenwich Leisure Limited (GLL) is an innovative staff led ‘Leisure Trust’, structured as an Industrial and Provident Society, which manages more than forty public leisure centres within the M25 area in partnership with nine London Boroughs, Epsom & Ewell Borough Council, Bellingham Community Project, Sport England and the London Development Agency.
* Get people to join the gym.
* Basic customer care i.e. showing people where things are (toilets, crï¿½che e.t.c.).
* No set qualifications needed
* At least 1-2 years experience in work
* ï¿½16,000-ï¿½17,000 per annum
* 40 hours per week
* Manager: George
I did this job description in this way because I thought it would screen out unsuitable candidates. When I was shortlisting my candidates I realized that perhaps it could have been more specific in the qualifications and experience sections and possible could have had a minimum requirement of 5 A*-C grades in GCSE for qualifications and for experience could have said that 1-2 experience in customer service.
Next, I drew up a Person Specification using Alec Rodger’s seven-point plan.
Physique, health and appearance
* Must be committed to a healthy lifestyle
* Must be smartly dressed
* Must be able to see the writing on a computer screen
* Min of 5 A*-C grade at GCSE (desirable)
* 1-2 years experience in work
* Must have common sense
* Good communication skills
* Must be over 18
* Marital status: Single (Desirable)
* Mobile (Desirable)
I decided to do my person specification in this way because again I thought that it would screen out the unsuitable candidates. It was better than the job description, but it also had its own faults. I could have expanded on my special aptitudes, and included enthusiasm. I could have also expanded on the interests and added working with computers and working with people. Finally, I could have added to the disposition and added good written skills and good ICT skills.
Then the job advertisement can be placed.
To create my job advertisement I stated clearly in the title what job it is so that people who are looking for this sort of job will read the rest of the advert. The job description would hopefully have deterred unsuitable candidates. Again like the job description and person specification it didn’t do as good a job as I would have hoped. However, I did get a lot of potential candidates that were suitable for the job.
I received many different CV’s and then I sent them all letters of invitations.
This letter sets out what job the interview is for, where and when the interview will take place, anything the candidate needs to bring and who to ask for arrival so that the candidate will be fully prepared for the interview.
When I created my application form (See appendix) I considered all the factors that all good application forms have. The questions I decided to put on the application were designed to show me which candidates were more suitable than others. This was effective when it came to shortlisting, because it was shown that some candidates couldn’t read simple instructions like ‘Please complete this application form in black ink’.
I created a list of 17 interview questions (See appendix) to ask my candidates. The interview questions were my most successful tool as they were what showed me the candidate’s personalities. It was from this that I made my final decision about the candidate I chose.
I informed the most successful candidate by phone to gain immediate acceptance. I did not inform the candidates not chosen as it would have been too time consuming.
My job description and person specification were problematic, as they did not develop some of the points made. In the job description, it was when it cam to relevant qualifications and experience; and in the person specification the disposition, interest and special aptitudes. My job advert was very good in filtering unsuitable candidates but possibly not as much as I had initially wanted.
My selection process was definitely more successful. The interview questions helped me get an insight into how the candidates worked and if they would be perfect for the job.
I did not break any legal considerations when I was recruiting, selecting, motivating and inducting. I carefully stayed within the equal pay act 1970 which states that there should be equal pay and conditions for people doing the same job, the sex discrimination act 1975 which states that employers can’t discriminate between potential employees on the fact that they are male or female, the 1986 sex discrimination act which states that there must be a similar retirement date for both men and women, the race relation act 1968, 1976, 2000 which states that there can be no discrimination against people of different colours, race, ethnicity or national origins, and finally the disability discrimination act 1995 and 2004 states there must be no discrimination at work, and that the employer must provide a suitable workplace for the disabled employees. I also asked my potential employees the same interview questions so that there was no unfairness when it came to picking my final applicant. I also fitted equal opportunities into my application form.
If the activity were repeated I would change my job description and person specification so that it would expand on what I have already done and it would help me be more selective about whom I interviewed and chose.
If a different job role had been chosen that I had more knowledge about then I possible could have produced better human resources documentation and developed more into areas I didn’t know. However this job role was a good choice and I think it was done to the best of my ability at the time.
In hindsight, however, I know that I could have done better and expanded more on certain ideas I had. I am now more aware of recruitment and selection process, and it will help me to get a job in the future because I will have a better understanding of how an applicant in selected.