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A Project Report on IoT Based Bridge Health Monitoring System


The bridges over water bodies are subjected to constant deterioration due to high temperatures, heavy vehicular loads, earthquakes and floods. This has lead to devastating disasters such as loss of property, state economy and most importantly life. Recently Majehat bridge in Kolkata and Siliguri bridge in Darjeeling had collapsed due to heavy loads and dilapidated conditions. So constant real time monitoring of bridge structural health is required to sustain the already developed bridges to avoid any upcoming mishaps in the future.

In a country like India traditional methods such as human inspection and manual tools are used to monitor bridges. But this can be avoided by using the Internet Of Things and Wireless Sensing Networks. The goal of this study was to develop a system that constantly monitors bridge health and then updates the concerned authorities regarding any defects due to environmental conditions via a mobile app. The system consists of ARM microprocessors, temperature, vibration and ultrasonic sensors along with RF modules.

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As a result, extreme temperatures, shocks, and vibrations along with rising water levels are sensed and transmitted via the RF module to a Control Unit. This is all processed in real-time without human intervention. The required data would be sent to the app and corrective actions can be taken by the administrative officials.


Bridges are critical in many regions, being used over the centuries for transportation of goods, humans and for viewing scenic beauty. Hence this makes it necessary to have a system which constantly monitors the structural health of the bridge and provides necessary updates regarding any problems to the concerned authorities and that too in real time.

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Current advancements in sensing technologies and the rise of IOT have led to the development of automated bridge-monitoring systems. Many long span bridges worldwide have already implemented such systems but high initial cost and maintenance along with wired structures have created serious issues due to which the desire to make use of traditional methods still persists. In this project the idea of IOT based bridge health monitoring is proposed. Different types of sensors attached to the bridge input various parameters such as vibration, shocks, extreme temperatures and flood level, process them using microcontrollers according to the set threshold and finally send the readings wirelessly using RF transmitters. For the prototype bridge model we are preparing we are only designing 2 nodes which would be attached on the ends of the model. To avoid collision in the networks we are using an Anti-collision protocol called as Request and Response. In this the slaves will compare their own slave ID after receiving the request and after a match takes place, then the slave will send data to master. For the communication purpose we are using Message Queuing Telemetry Transport protocol. It is used for networks with remote locations where a small footprint or the network bandwidth is limited. The required information will be displayed on an app interface designed using VBScript. The interface could be opened on any electronic device with active internet connection.

Literature Survey

On 18th September, 2011 in Darjeeling, West Bengal a bridge collapsed due to weakening in its structure caused a 6.9 magnitude earthquake that shook north-eastern India. 32 people were killed and 132 were injured as a result.

On 4th August, 2016 an old bridge connected to the Mumbai  ‘Goa highway collapsed down due to over flooding as a result of heavy rains and rise of water level of Savitri river .29 people were missing and 10 vehicles were submerged in the river.

On 18th August, 2017 in Bihar’s Araria district a bridge collapsed due to the raging river waters. 3 people were dead and it affected nearly 98 lakh people in 16 districts which resulted in the postpostment of the upcoming examinations and cancellations of train reservations.

We researched different papers from various sources such as

  1. Bridge Monitoring System’ published in IJISSET 2016 by the author Anand Kumar Jha.
  2. Development of an IOT based bridge safety monitoring system’ published in IEEE 2017 by the author Taipei, Taiwan
  3. Bridge Monitoring and Alert Generation System using IOT’ published in IJARIIT 2017 by author Varsha Kusal and Amrita Argade


  1. To design and develop a sensor interface to detect and inform the base station of bridge structural health monitoring.
  2. To develop a Graphical user interface (GUI) for Monitoring and analysis of bridge safety.
  3. To develop a IOT based APP to access data on internet.


At least 23 people were killed after a section of an under-construction overpass collapsed in a crowded area of the eastern Indian city of Kolkata . Ponte Morandi motorway bridge collapse in Italy due to structural defect -43 dead. Not just these two but there are many mishaps due to structural defects. To avoid these accidents a system is needed which will detect the structural defects and send the information about the defect to the central control system.

Many long-span bridges worldwide have already implemented such systems but high initial cost and maintenance along with wired structures have created serious issues due to which the desire to make use of traditional methods still persists.

If there would be a system which will indicate defects in the bridge, the lot of number of mishaps could be avoided

Block Diagram

Block Diagram description:-

We are designing a wireless sensor network based bridge monitoring system. We have connected 2 nodes to bridge model. Both the embedded nodes will collect data and send it to PC based Master. For avoiding collision between nodes we are using Request and response type protocol. In request and response protocol the master will send the data request. The slaves will receive the request and compare their own slave ID. If slave ID matches, then the slave will send the data to the Master. We are also designing a Local PC based server. The server will display the data on the GUI.

Here we are using different sensors to measure the different parameters effecting the bridge stability:

Temperature Sensor:

Measure the temperature on the concrete.

Ultrasonic sensor:

Here we are interfacing ultrasonic sensor based water level sensor.

Vibration sensor (Accelerometer):

Vibration sensor node the changes that could indicate damage to the bridge .

IOT based APP:

We are designing an IOT based APP to display the data of the bridge . The user will be updates with the sensor data periodically on internet. The user can access the data from anywhere on APP.

Power Supply Design


The proposed system includes designing a system for measuring bridge parameters and send the data to the app. The system mainly includes measuring the temperature, vibration in the bridge and also measure water level. The collected data is sent to mobile so that parameter monitoring will be easy and required repairing of the bridge will be performed.

The project consists of two nodes on the bridge. The PC acts as server and nodes will act as slaves. When PC sends the request for data and then only nodes will send the data. This is done to avoid the collision of data.

Hardware and Software Requirement

Hardware Requirement:

  • LPC2138
  • Operating Voltage
  • 10 bit ADC(16 analog inputs)
  • LM 35
  • Operating voltage:4-30V
  • Current drain:60uA
  • Operating range:-550 to +1500 C
  • Accuracy:0.50 C
  • HC-SR-04
  • Operating voltage:5V
  • operating current:15mA
  • Maximum range:4m
  • Minimum range:2cm
  • RF Trans receiver
  • Worldwide 2.4 GHz ISM band operation
  • Ultra low power operation
  • Operating voltage:1.9V to 3.6V
  • Operating temperature:-400 to +850C
  • ADXL 335
  • Operating voltage:1.8V to 3.6V
  • Low power:350uA
  • Excellent temperature stability
  • Software Requirements:
  • Compiler: KEIL3
  • Programming Language: Embedded C
  • Programming Platform: Flash Magic
  • Visual Basic server 6.
  • B4A

Simulation and Testing

Fig.5 initial stage of simulation

Fig.6 sensors output on LCD

Testing of Individual Sensors

LCD Testing

Fig.7 LCD Testing

ADXL 335 Testing

Fig.8. ADXL 335 Testing

LM 35 Testing

Fig.9 LM 35 Testing

Result analysis and discussion

We performed testing of the individual sensor module. After successful testing of sensors we implemented the whole system in general environment and observed following results.

Sr.No Parameter Value Observed

Salve 1 Slave 2

  1. Temperature 29.60C 270C
  2. X-axis 490 494
  3. Y-axis 606 389
  4. Water level 204.5cm –

Precision agriculture

Implementation plan:

I – SEMESTER Sr.No Project detail Month

  1. Selection of Project August
  2. Data sheet study September (1-15)
  3. sensor selection September (15-30)
  4. Circuit diagram (Proteus) October (1-15)
  5. Seminar report October (15-30)
  6. II SEMESTER 6 Layout Diagram,PCB making January (1-15)
  7. Soldering and Hardware testing January (15-30)
  8. Coding and testing February (1-30)
  9. Final Demonstration March (1-15)
  10. Final Project report April (15-30)


Wireless sensor networks are becoming popular day by day. With the latest rise in IoT and wireless sensing real time bridge health monitoring has become quite advance and futuristic. This has also made monitoring accurate and easily accessible by everyone. Problems accruing due to co-axial cables and optical fiber cables as well as the cost are also reduced. Reliability and ease of this system is another benefit. This technology can provide early defect detection which will be helpful in avoiding loss of country economy and most importantly human life.

Scope of Future work

In proposed system,RF module is used for communication between nodes and PC server. But we can use ZigBee for long range communication. Also Zigbee modules needs less power which is important parameter while implementing system on actual bridge.

In proposed system we are using only two nodes, but in real time environment we need more node. We can implement star topology in those nodes.

This system can be enhanced with more features like adding more sensors to node.

We can also install auto barriers on bridge. When there is a critical condition on bridge the barriers will come down and save further disasters.


1] Bridge Monitoring System published in IJISSET 2016 by the author Anand Kumar Jha.

2] Development of an IOT based bridge safety monitoring system’ published in IEEE 2017 by the author Taipei, Taiwan

3] Bridge Monitoring and Alert Generation System using IOT published in IJARIIT 2017 by author Varsha Kusal and Amrita Argade

4] Feasibility of Vibration-Based Long-Term Bridge Monitoring Using the I-35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge Lauren Linderman, Principal Investigator Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geo- Engineering University of Minnesota

Cite this page

A Project Report on IoT Based Bridge Health Monitoring System. (2019, Nov 22). Retrieved from

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