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During the 16th-17th century, when the Philippines was still under the control of Spain, the Jesuit Historian, Father Pedro Chirino, wrote in 1604 about the baptism of two deaf Filipino in Dulac, Leyte by Father Francisco De Otaco. Father Ramon De Prado, the vice-provincial priest taught these two deaf Filipinos and they were the first deaf Filipino who learned to use the Filipino Sign Language. The older Deaf, Raymundo shared his knowledge to five to ten deaf men during a mission.
300 years later, the first influence of American Sign Language came here in the Philippines thru Delight Rice, the hearing American teacher who established the School for the Deaf in 1907 in Manila (PDRC and PFD. 2004.) The school still exists today as the Philippines School for the Deaf (PSD) (HV 2474 F55 2005 Pt.1 from DLS-CSB).
“Filipino Sign Language is certainly natural and a unique visual language of the Deaf Filipinos. The grammar, structure and syntax or arrangements of
the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) are equal or the same as in the spoken language. FSL has its Filipino Deaf culture and identity. However, Filipino Sign Language is not a written system.” (Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc., Macky Calbay and Raphael Domingo)
Sign languages communicate ideas through hands like spoken languages. However, sign languages do not need sounds and voice. It needs hands, face and other parts of the body to communicate in visual ways. The visual signs, helps the deaf to understand the message it conveys through the eyes. Signs must be clear in order to be understood in the eyes of the deaf, which the brain process, interprets and meanings comprehended. The basic parts of signs are hand shapes, location, movement, palm orientation and non-manual signals.
Many people think of sign languages as a language of the hands but the research in linguistics revealed that sign language includes not only one or both hands, but also the different parts of the trunk, arms, neck, head and face. Hand shape, movement and number of hands used may be grouped together.
A sign language follows many groups of rules. The parts of signs and their meanings, whole, signs, and the grammar of sentences are separate rules. Several words are put together to form a sentence, and the exchange of these sentence forms a dialogue. Examples of dialogue are conversations, stories, humor and poetry. When a sign is produced by itself, it may look different from when it is actually used in a conference. The important part of the sign language is the connection between two or more conversing people.
Social factors are important in studying signs during the conference. It is because the sign language is not only for relaying messages but also for social interaction. The sign used for a word is influenced by one’s emotions. For example, the word “sorry” is signed in just one way, but when added with emotions, it could have different meanings.
The signs are shown to the complexity of their grammatical function. In spoken languages, words act certainly according to their grammatical class. In sign languages, signs may function differently depending on the sentence structure, and context of the conference. So, it is common for a single sign to shift functions as a noun, verb, or adjective in different sentences, conversations or contexts. Since sign languages are not written systems, the use of words came from a written language and the grammatical function of the sign must carefully avoid being perplexed. For example, a word for a sign that can be a noun in English, but the sign itself can function as a noun or adjective.
In Grammar classes, there are the same kinds of grammatical groups are getting into sign language. In ASL, there are different classes of verbs that have been described. The verbs may include different kinds of information such as: where the action takes place, or who does the action (subject) and who receives the action (object). It can be same to some sign couples in FSL. Examples of these noun-verb/adjective couples in FSL are LOW-BATTERY, BATTERY-FULL.
Sign languages are different from spoken languages or written. A sign may be used as a noun, adjective or verb that depends on the sentence. Sometimes, a single sign can already be similar a share of a sentence or even a whole sentence. For example, the single sign “observe” may already mean, “I observe her carefully.”
There are classifiers in the traditional signs appearing in FSL. These can be easy classifier hand shapes to understand classifier predicates. The classifiers observed in FSL also have classifier hand shapes and movement roots like those described in ASL and BSL. An example is the sign LRT/MRT. The classifier hand shape is the whole object type — the hand shape looks like the rail transit car. The movement of the classifier is a process movement root. The LRT/MRT moves forward. The straightforward movement of the hand represents the forward action of the LRT/MRT.
In Nouns, the signs included in a group have always been noted in a dialogue as nouns. The traditional signs included food, events, places, persons and various objects. It included also common and proper nouns. For example, MANGO, ELECTRIC FAN, JOLLIBEE, HAPPY etc…
In Nouns/Verbs, the signs may switch in grammatical class that depends on the dialogue structure. The signs however, show to only have a single form unconcerned of their grammatical function. Most of them cannot be able to show always the movement repetitions strongly characteristic of noun-verbs pairs in American Sign Language. For example, AGREE, AGREEMENT, CONCLUSION/CONCLUDE etc…
In Nouns/Adjectives, the signs are noted to have nominal or adjectival functions. For example, BETTER, FAST, HOT, HAPPINESS, EXHAUSTED etc…
In Verbs/Adjectives, the signs are noted to be used as adjectival predicates. For example, CORRUPT/TO BE CORRUPT, PASSIVE/TO BE PASSIVE, SUFFER/BE IN SUFFERING etc…
In Lexicalized Finger spelled signs, the signs are aged which are more commonly noted among Deaf signers in their forties to sixties. Examples of Lexicalized Finger spelled signs are #AIRCORN, #TV etc…
In Lexicalized Initialized signs, the signs are from variant grammatical classes and used two or three decades. For example, ANYBODY, 13 PESO, GRADE VII etc…
In Structurally complex signs, the signs placed together since features of their structure are not as straightforward as the other signs shown so far. Signs included compound signs and agreement verbs. For example, HOW MUCH, DON’T KNOW, HARDHEAD etc…
In Semantically complex signs, the signs groups included idioms, belonging to variants of ASL, possessive pronouns, negations, various phrases, and classifier predicates (signer’s perspective). For example, DESTROY FOOD, PLEASE, RUDE etc… (IDIOM)
FSL signs showed to be adverbs. The non-manual signal noted in FSL signs that moves of the tongue. The tongue of non-manual signs is same but their meaning is mixed-up, not clear or hard to understand. For example TEXT-GARBLED describes a text message that is hard to understand.
In FSL, the pointing pronouns are noted in commonly using among Deaf Filipino signers which usually include the index finger. The signs use an open hand. They show ownership or possessions. The question is always used by FSL sign. The eye gaze is forward the person who asked the question. The first location of the hand is near the object being talked about. The last location of the hand, and its palm, faces the person being asked. One example of pronouns is the TOUCH-MINE.
In space as time, the place where the signer stands represents the time now. The space in front of the signer shows the future and the space behind the signer shows the past. Signs related to time such as LATELY, NEXT DAY, LAST WEEK AGO, NOW are produced at different points of this timeline. One example of time is the TOMORROW-TOMORROW, LAST-TWO-YEARS etc…
In idioms, there are several signs that are called Deaf idioms in the book Love Signs. But, the need is more researching if the signs are all true idioms. It uses expressions unique to Deaf Filipino signers. For example, the sign ISTAMBAY of the literal meaning is a person who stands around for a long time. The figurative meaning can be a verb or adjective, describing a jobless person.
A sentence is a group of words that completes ideas and can be followed by a period, question mark or exclamation point.
There are two most important of English grammar; knowledge of writing and allows students to study the grammar of other languages completely. There are the most important elements of the sentence, the verb, subject, direct object, indirect object, complement, multiple-word modifiers, modifiers, clauses and phrases. Sometimes, many sentences have only a verb and a subject. It also includes the parts of speech; noun and articles, verbs and verbals, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs and prepositions and conjunctions.
A subject is the name of a person, animal, place, thing and event that the sentence about. For example, “The house is a big”. The house is the subject of the verb big, answering the question who or what big? Another example, “The tiger eats the animal”. The tiger is the subject of the verb eats, answering the question who or what eats the animal; he tiger eats the animal.
A verb is a word that describes an action. For example, “The goat eats grass”. The verb eats describes the action performed by the subject goat. Another example, “Deaf people walk on the street”. The verb walk describes the action performed by the subject Deaf people.
A direct object is the noun that receives the action. For example, “Everyone ruins your precious things”. What is the action? ruins. What receives the action? precious things, it is the direct object of the verb ruins. Another example, “Your friend got your ballpen”. What receives the action? ballpen. Ballpen is the direct object of the verb got.
An indirect object is the noun or pronoun that receives the direct object. For example, “The professor helps his student’s education”. The direct object of helps is education. His student is the indirect object. Another example, “I give the laptop to you”. The direct object of give is laptop. You is the indirect object.
Complement is the word or words that complete the meaning of verbs that express feeling, appearing, being, or seeming. Such verbs are classified as copulative or linking verbs. For example, “I am feeling sick”. The verb feeling does not describe action, but does describe a state of being. Feeling links the subject I with sick is the complement of feeling. Another example, “His family seems worried of you”. The copulative verb seems links his family and worried, the complement of seems.
Modifiers may be a single word or groups of words, make the identity that describes a verb, subject, direct object, indirect object, complements or other modifier. For example, “My brother eats quickly his dinner”. The verb eats is made more precise is modified by quickly his dinner. Another example, “They lost my new laptop”. The direct object laptop is modified by my new.
Multiple-word modifiers are included of phrases or clauses. A phrase is a logical grouping of words that does not contain a subject verb, while a clause is a logical grouping of words that does contain a subject and verb. For example, “My sister who was the only who love me goes to my graduation”. In this sentence, the clause who was the only who love me modifies my sister; the phrases to my graduation modifies goes. The first multiple word modifiers have both subject who and verb love. For this reason, the modifier is a clause. To my graduation has neither subject nor verb, so it is a phrase.
A clause is a group of related words that includes a subject and a verb. It may also include an object or complement, an indirect object and modifiers. If it makes a complete idea and can stand alone as a sentence, it is called an independent clause. On the other hand, if it cannot stand alone as a sentence, it is called a subordinate or dependent clause. For example, “My family and I eat our lunch together and then we go to the mall”. This sentence consists of two independent clauses. Each clause has its own subject and verb: My family and I eat, we go. Either clause can stand as a complete sentence. Each makes a statement that does not depend on the other. The conjunction here is and, which is classified as a coordinating conjunction. Other coordinating conjunctions are but, for, so, or, nor and yet.
A phrase is a group of two or more words that does not include a subject and a verb. It has many forms and functions. It is useful to learn and recognize phrases and to identify their functions as modifiers, subjects, complements and objects. For example, “His hobby was playing basketball”. The phrase playing basketball functions as the complement of was, a copulative verb. Playing is also a gerund. Another example, “My classmates want to finish their project early”. The phrase to finish their project early is the object of want. Notice that to finish is an infinitive, which is one of the three types of verbals.
In Grammar classes, there are classifiers in a spoken language as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. It includes pronouns and prepositions that have a more limited meaning. They can display relationships between nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.
In spoken languages, a word cannot be able to change its meaning. For example, if a word is a noun, it is always used as a noun. It does not develop into a verb, adjective, or adverb.
In a spoken language, an idiom is a group of words with a unique meaning. It has two meanings, its literal and figurative meanings. The literal meaning is the independent meaning of the words, put together as a group, while the figurative meaning is the new meaning of the whole group of words. The new figurative meaning may not be related at all to the literal meaning of the words.
The Deaf students of the School of Deaf Education in Applied and Studies, De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde has a problem on English grammar because they do not know how to use the structure of the English language. They also believe that the sign language’s structure is the same or similar to the written English. As a result, it is hard for them to communicate with the hearing people through writing.
Through the creation of websites that utilizes flash player to describe the structures of FSL and Written English which can be arranged in such a way that the visual animation highlights the difference between the FSL and the written English structures. This way, it will be more meaningful and can be easily understood, remembered and applied by the deaf and as well as the hearing students in communicating with each other. Furthermore, the students can understand the differences in using FSL structure and English written rules.
Description of the Project
• To encourage the deaf students to understand the structural difference between the Filipino Sign Language (FSL) and the written English.
• To help Deaf students know how to translate FSL to written English by conceptualization, and Hearing students to translate written English to FSL by conceptualization.
• To promote and encourage the hearing people to understand the structures of sign language (FSL) and use it to communicate with the deaf.
• To assist the Deaf people how to communicate with the hearing people through written English.
• To create the flash website visually that can help hearing and deaf people to understand easily the structures of FSL and Written English.
• Deaf and hearing people
• College students
Websites that uses flash player.
Adobe Photoshop is a graphic editing program that makes easily website which it can support website. ( (I CAN’T UNDERSTAND THIS KUYA!!!!)
Video or Adobe Premiere is a technology of recording that supports website to make deaf and hearing people easily understandable.
Pre-Production Process Project
Step 1: Brainstorming to choose good topics related to Deaf issues
Step 2: Choose three best topics pertaining to Deaf issues
Step 3: Submit to my instructor the topics pertaining to Deaf issues
Step 4: Consultation with my instructor to explain to me how to write the document
Step 4: Share the topics to my classmates to help me select the best topic
Step 5: Consultation with my Coordinator for editing my topic
Step 6: Ask my English and FSL coordinators their opinion and to suggest what is the best topic to be written
Step 7: Approval of the chosen topic by my CG coordinator
Step 8: Research on the books related to my selected topic
Step 9: Consult with my English and FSL coordinator
Step 10: Writing paper (context)
Step 11: Review and edit the paper
Step 12: Draft sample design that is related to my topic
Step 13: Print the paper
Step 14: Final presentation
Therefore, this paper can be the seed to help both the deaf and hearing people understand the difference in structures of FSL and written English in an easy manner. For Deaf people, this paper will help them how to translate FSL to written English. Likewise, it will help the hearing people on translating written English to FSL. Furthermore, it will also help the hearing and deaf people to communicate with each other easily.
The creation of websites utilizing flash player as visual aids highlighting the difference between the FSL and the written English structures will assist both the deaf and hearing people in communicating among themselves and with each other. It will also enhance the communication skills of the individuals; provide greater opportunities in understanding the world of the silent people, knowledge, cooperation and collaboration for the greater and common good of the society.
Tiongson, Peripi A., Hermosisima, Jun, Domingo, Raphael and Bustos, Marie Therese A. (ED.) (2004). AN INTRODUCTION TO FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE: Part l. Understanding Structure | Easy – to – read version |. [pp. 1-160] Filipino: Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc.
TRADITIONAL SIGNS. (2004), AN INTRODUCTION TO FILIPINO SIGN LANGUAGE: Part ll: Traditional and Emerging Signs [pp.1-154] Philippines: Philippine Deaf Resource Center, Inc.
Estiller-Corpuz, Marites Racquel [ED.]. Filipino Sign Language; A complication of signs from regions of the Philippines, Filipino: Philippine Federation of the Deaf.
Ehrlich, Eugene (2000, 1991, 1976). SCHAUM’S OUTLINES: English Grammar, American: McGraw-Hill companies, Inc.
Initial design (Website)