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The Manifesto embarks on a journey of wealth and poverty as it talks aboutthe specter of communism. European powers have partnered against communism due to the disagreement with its morals and ideas. The manifesto was written to provide a public outlet for their views, ambitions, and goals while also aiming to eliminate the malevolent misconceptions imbedded into others. This document summarized and tries to expose the constant conflict between the upper class, the proletariat, and the exploited, the bourgeois. Karl Marx’s ideas and theories can be related to the constant struggle that we see in modern society.
He realized that the uneven disbursement of power between classes due to capitalism, will later become socialism and finally result into communism. “A spectra is haunting Europe–the specter of Communism.(460)” This quote tells the rational of what most Europeans thought of the idea of becoming a communist country. They related the idea of communism as a ghost that haunts Europe. Therefore, Karl Marx and a group of communist met in London to summarize and detail their views, goals, and tendencies of this time of economy.
With great efforts, Communist hoped disprove all false and negative connotations that Europeans seemed to believe.
The Manifesto starts by addressing the point of the class antagonism. Marx says, “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles(457).” Throughout the ages we seen oppressor and oppressed in an unchanged fight with each other. This battle is oftenhidden but not always. History has resulted to constant revolutionaries or coups that end with the same outcome.
One class controls all the power and exposes that lesser powers. It’s a tiresome cycle that has lead years of bloodshed and heartache. The Manifesto begins by addressing the issue of class antagonism. Marx writes, “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.(458)” Throughout history we see the oppressor and oppressed in constant opposition to each other. This fight is sometimes hidden and sometimes open. However, each time the fight ends in either a revolutionary reconstruction of society or in the classes’ common ruin. In the early ages of society we saw a more specific class structure. There was feudal lords, their vassals, black smith, journey men, the appetencies, and the common serf. Each having a certain amount of power based on capital but not as night and day as modern day society. Modern society the people with the most money seem to have the power to really have influence in the community. We have subdivided into middle class and lower class too. But the one percent overrules the vast majority of decisions within our country.
Poverty stricken people are not even relevant towards what actually happens in this country. We as a middle class have some sort of power but in the end it goes towards people with influence which commonly means more capital. Communist ideals feel like we should share the power between all classes despite the amount of money we make. The Manifesto then shows how the modern bourgeoisie is the product of several revolutions in the mode of production and of exchange. The development of the bourgeoisie began in the earliest towns, and gained momentum with the Age of Exploration. Feudal guilds couldn’t provide for increasing markets, and the manufacturing middle class took its place. However, markets kept growing and demand kept increasing, and manufacture couldn’t keep up. This led to the Industrial Revolution. Manufacture was replaced by “Modern Industry,” and the industrial middle class was replaced by “industrial millionaires,” the modern bourgeois. With these developments, the bourgeoisie have become powerful, and have pushed medieval classes into the background. The development of the bourgeoisie as a class was accompanied by a series of political developments. With the development of Modern Industry and the world-market, the bourgeoisie has gained exclusive political sway.
The State serves solely the bourgeoisie’s interests. In history, the bourgeoisie has played a very short revolutionary role due to the extensive power they would gain causing it to put an end to most, “federal, patriarchal, idyllic relations”(459). The characteristics of self-interest within men remain but relationships that bound people to their superiors become excluded all while the religious fervor, chivalry, and sentimentalism are sacrificed. Free Trade increased the personal worth, which is now measured by exchange, value, and its freedom causing a change in certain occupations into professions such as a doctor. The blanket is lifted among family relations revealing the loss of sentimentality and instead became purely money relations. Without revolutionizing the instruments of production, the bourgeoisie is distinctive in the way that they cannot be in existence. By revolutionizing the relations of production it implies that it will have all of the relations in society. With unique uncertainties and disturbances within this modern time it has force men to face real conditions in life, and challenges their true relations with the others that surround them.
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