The terms Indianization and sinicization Essay
The terms Indianization and sinicization
The terms Indianization and sinicization when used to describe certain government administrations mainly refer to the incorporation of local elements into the government. It basically means that the foreign elements of the invaders or other foreign powers are gradually replaced by the indigenous peoples. This process can be used for any race or culture. Indianization and sinicization can therefore be considered as terms that can be used to describe a certain change in the composition of any administrative or government organization that has been established or controlled by any foreign or external power in favor of the local population.
In response to this question, sinicization would refer to the process of becoming more Chinese. As a product of social science thinking, this refers to the assimilation of the non-Han Chinese people (Manchus) into the identity of the modern day Chinese. While it has been widely criticized as being a phenomenon which is not strictly cultural, it has been used widely enough to describe the event that occurs when local government administrations controlled by foreign powers are slowly handed over to the local groups.
Indianization, on the other hand, refers more specifically to the process by which the British Empire, under control of the British Raj, gradually promoted Indian Officers to higher ranks within the British government in India. These positions, which were traditionally held only by Europeans, were now made accessible to the Indian officers under this movement. This process was introduced in the 1920s but was discontinued during World War 2. 2. What developments in Southern Song China resemble the Industrial Revolution of the West? Why were the emperors during the Song period so successful when their predecessors were not?
The developments in Southern Song closely resemble the Industrial Revolution of the West due to the massive shipbuilding, harbor constructions and weaponry development that occurred during this era. After the Southern Song had been weakened and pushed along the Huai River, they were forced to find new ways by which to solidify their economy. Aside from the threat from the Jin Dynasty, the Southern Song also felt that they had to strengthen their defenses and as such, with the aid of Yue Fei and Han Shizhong, the government launched its initiative to improve its maritime interests.
It was also during this period that trade greatly flourished due to the improvement of the local harbors, and warehouses that were able to accommodate international trade. This also led to the establishment of a permanent Navy that featured swift paddle-wheel sea-craft. The success of the emperors during the Song period was largely due to the fact that they were able to increase commerce and control the people through a strong central government. During the Song period, there was a growth in the arts and education as well.
Another key to the success of the emperors of Southern Song was the military power that it was able to amass due to the modifications that were made to the weaponry since the discovery of gunpowder. Not only did this provide an advantage against the Jin Dynasty, it also allowed for the protection of the Song Dynasty from invaders from the sea. This combination of the improvements in commerce, defense and education allowed the emperors of the Song Dynasty to succeed in unifying China under a single rule. 3. What combination of Mongol attributes and Song weaknesses made the Mongol conquest successful? Please analyze it detail
The success of the Mongol conquest was predicated upon the fact that the Song had already become weak due to the battles that it had waged against the Jin Dynasty. While the Song Dynasty was busy fighting the Jin Dynasty along the Yangtze River in 1161, the Mongols were slowly mobilizing their forces and creeping towards the northern regions. After the Song Dynasty held back the Jin Dynasty, the Mongols, who were then led by Genghis Khan, entered China and invaded the Jin Dynasty. The effect of the large raids that the Mongols had due to the military prowess they possessed on land soon led to the amassing of a large Mongol force in China.
By 1276, most of the Song territory had now been controlled by the Mongols. This dominance over the Jin and Song Dynasties was made possible by the fact that these dynasties were not able to match up with the land forces that the Mongols possessed. While there were advancements in weaponry that occurred during this time, the Song army was much too inflexible to deal with the attacks of the Mongols. The versatility and swiftness of the attacks of Genghis Khan and his Mongol hordes made it impossible for the Song Dynasty to sustain any viable and successful counterattack.
Factored with the fact that most of the spending on the military was used to upgrade the Southern Harbors and the Navy, the conquest by the Mongols became all the easier. Therefore, the combination of the land military strength of the Mongols and the weakness of the Song military enabled the Mongols to totally wipe out the Song Dynasty by 1279. 4. Why did Chinese culture become so popular and accepted in Japan? What are the major differences and similarities between the Chinese and Japanese culture. The influx of Chinese culture in Japan began with the introduction of Buddhist practices.
During the Asuka period, Buddhism was introduced to Japan by Baekje. It was during this same perioed that Prince Shotoku also introduced the Chinese Culture. The seventeen-article constitution that was introduced during this era by the Prince greatly influenced the Japanese ways and the culture. This seventeen-article constitution was actually a Confucian style document that embodied the teachings of the Chinese with regard to the different kinds of morals and virtues that each and every of the government officials and the emperor’s subjects were expected to possess and to practice.
This adaptation of Chinese teachings and philosophies paved the way for more interaction between Japan and China. Coupled with the interest that Prince Shotoku had with the Chinese Culture, most of Japanese society soon began to accept and practice many different aspects of Chinese culture such as music, arts and food. While there is a general mistrust in the relationship that Japan has with China these days, there are still major similarities that these two cultures possess. The practices derived from the seventeen-article constitution are still widely followed and this has even spilled over into the business world.
Other similarities include the influence of Chinese architecture in certain towns in Okinawa. As for the differences, the major difference lies in the respect to etiquette and rules. The Chinese tend to be more lax with respect to their practice of etiquette and respect while the Japanese strictly abide by these rules and are generally more consistent with its practice even up to the present times. 5. What impact did Buddhism have on the development of Japanese culture and lifestyles? Give examples in both art and literature where Buddhism was a major factor.
Buddhism was introduced to Japan by Prince Shotoku, who is credited with being the first to realize that the Buddhist teachings were different from the other religious cults that were numerous during these times. The impact of Buddhism on Japanese Culture and Lifestyles can basically be categorized in three different periods, the Nara, the Heian and the Kamakura. It was during the Nara period that the Japanese attempted to incorporate Buddhist teachings into local practices. In an attempt to improve the welfare of the state, a number of officials put the Buddhist teachings into practice.
These were called the “Six Schools of Nara Buddhism. ” The Heian period marked the progress of Buddhism as a practice reserved for the government into a practice that was now available to the people. The teachings given by Saicho and Kukai allowed for a deeper understanding of the Buddhist practices. Soon after, the Tendai School was formed and this was opened to the public. It was also during this period that concrete examples of the influence of Buddhism began to appear as in the relationship between Buddhism and that of the Shinto Pantheon.
The Kamakura period was the height of the influence of Buddhism and its influence was reflected in much of the culture and arts that were produced during this era. Soon after, the Soto and Jodo Shinshu schools were formed during the Meji era and these became totally integrated as essential practices of Japanese life and culture. 6. How did a Japanese emperor differ from the Chinese emperor? Which would you consider more superior and why? The Japanese Emperor is different from the Chinese Emperor on many levels.
For one thing, the Japanese Emperor is not considered as the Emperor of the entire civilized world but rather just the head of the entire Japanese empire. Today’s role for the Japanese Emperor has shrunk greatly from the role that he played since the title of Emperor was bestowed in the 6th century. The power, however, that the Japanese Emperor possessed enabled him, as the Supreme Sovereign, to own any piece of land that he desired within the empire and also allowed him complete control over the government officials and subjects.
This power was curtailed during the Meiji restoration and is now just limited by the constitution. The Chinese Emperor is quite different and may perhaps be considered as the more powerful emperor due to the traditional belief that the Chinese Emperor was the “Son of Heaven. ” As the absolute ruler of the entire civilized world, the Emperor of China could control any matter that he desired even if it was very minute. He was not considered merely the ruler of a single state but was considered as the only legitimate ruler of the entire world.
Since the authority of the Chinese Emperor was derived from the heavens, the words and orders that were issued by the Chinese Emperor were called sacred edicts or “directive from Heaven. ” The emperor had no equal and even the closest of family members had to address the Chinese Emperor with the utmost formality and respect. In practice, however, the power of the Chinese Emperor was held by the chancellors or regents that were appointed to attend to the other matters with regard to the administration and policies of the country.
7. What characteristics of the nomadic peoples made them `barbaric` to the civilizations of India and China? What characteristics of the nomadic peoples would you consider to be strengths? The main characteristics of the Nomadic people that made them seem “barbaric” to the established and flourishing civilizations of India and China comes from the fact that these people had no fixed settlements. Their nature as nomadic settlers and pillagers was abhorrent to the advanced cultures of India and China.
The absence of any central infrastructure of power and of established religions made the nomads seem barbaric by the standards of the Chinese and the Indian civilizations. Another factor which led the Indians and the Chinese to consider the Nomads as barbaric was the culture that these people had. The lifestyles and even the warfare methods that these people employed was primitive, to say the least. The main source of food for these people came from pillaging, hunting and gathering what they could. This was unlike that of the Indians and Chinese who had learned how to cultivate and domesticate.
One advantage that the Nomads had, aside from their foraging, hunting and survival skills, was their advantage in warfare. While India and China had the technological advantage, the Nomads were flexible and could adapt to all types of terrain. These Nomads soon became masters of the chariot and had also learned how to utilize certain weapons such as bows and arrows. This made them a very serious threat against any army that either India or China had at this point in history. 8. When did the Mughal dynasty rule India. What achievements occurred during this dynasty?
What led to the decline of Mughal rule in India? The Mughal Dynasty was one of the most influential of all dynasties to rule India. Controlling the Indian subcontinent from the early sixteenth century until the early nineteenth century, the Mughal dynasty was widely considered as the pinnacle of the Indian Empire where it was said to have reached its greatest area under one of the Mughal emperors, Aurangzeb. There are many achievements of the Mughal Empire. Some of these include the efforts to unify the Hindus and the Muslims into one single Indian state.
At the peak of the Mughal Empire, the population that it ruled over was at over 130 million people. This was over a territory that was estimated to be nearly 1. 5 million square miles. It was also during this period that the government of India was changed and made more centralized to consolidate the power that the emperor had. While the Mughal Empire had reached its peak during the reign of Aurangzeb from 1658 to 1707, it was also during this time that it declined. The intolerant rule that characterized the leadership of Aurangzeb was one of the greatest reasons for the collapse of the Mughal Empire.
The pressure that was exerted by the rivalries that began to sprout up and the dynastic warfare that was waged as well as the invasion in 1739 of regions in Northern India all added up to lead to the collapse of what was once a great Indian Empire. 9. Ironically, while Europeans later fought wars over control of the sea routes in the Asian region, China abandoned its dominant position. Why did the Ming court decide to end the maritime voyages of Zheng He just as China reached domination of the Asian seas?
Was this a poor decision or one that strengthened China? Please explain. The decision of the Ming Court to end the maritime voyages of Zheng He were borne from the fact that there was an internal conflict in court. Upon the succession of the Hongxi Emperor, there was an order to suspend the trips of Zheng He due to the influence that he had begun to exert upon the court. With the support of certain high ranking Chinese Officials, a policy was soon passed that prohibited the contact with people who were regarded as barbarians.
While not directly referring to Zheng He, it was clear that this edict was meant to curtail the trips that he had with people the Chinese considered as having no benefit to China. Another factor that led to this decision was the fact that during this time China was also under siege by the Mongols. The mounting costs for the military that was needed to repel these attacks diverted much of the funds that were needed for the treasure ships that Zheng He controlled. Finally, with the construction of the Great Wall of China, there was not enough funding for Zheng He to go on his trips.
This move led to a power vacuum in the Indian Ocean and left the Chinese control over this area vulnerable to other countries. In the end, this movement left China with no clear dominance over sea trade in the area. This also led to the shrinking military control that China had in the Indian Ocean. Since the attention of China was diverted from these sea conquests, there was no more funding that was needed to maintain the stronghold and dominance that it once had. 10. Who founded the Ming Dynasty and what were main characteristics of rule during this period?
What were the major achievements of the Ming Dynasty? What is meant by saying that the `sprouts of capitalism` can be found in the Ming Dynasty? The Ming Dynasty is known as the last dynasty that was controlled by the Hans, who are considered as the main Chinese ethnic group. Ruling from 1368 to 1644, this was also considered as one of the greatest Empires of China. It was during this same period that China was able to create a vast naval force and also to amass a standing army of over one million infantry troops.
The growth and prosperity that China experienced at this time due to the maritime explorations of Zheng He were also noteworthy. This was also the same time that China began ambitious construction projects such as the Great Wall of China and the Forbidden City. It has been reported that the growth was spectacular during this era as China’s population reached nearly two hundred million people. Other major achievements of the Ming Dynasty include the creation of self-sufficient communities allowed China to grow even more during this time.
A new class also emerged and was called the scholarly gentry class who had an impact on the traditional methods in Chinese Society. The “Sprouts of Capitalism” was sown by these seeds and also the increased maritime trade that China now had with the Portuguese and Spanish empires. China soon took advantage of the new global market that had emerged and was soon trading in numerous commodities with countries all over the world. The growth of trade and the establishment of international trading routes also prompted what is now considered as the “Sprouts of Capitalism. ”