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7 Ways of Naming Muscles Essay

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To aide us in this process there are ways to become more familiar and to help make these muscles more identifiable. There are at least 7 ways to do this. By having descriptive portion included in the muscle name is the major way of aiding one. This can be done by including the Location within the body, origin and insertion points, fascicle organization. The relative positions, structural characteristics and action. When using location in the body there may be a term included that is associated with a specific body region.

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At times a muscle may be so prominent that the name of the body region alone can identify it.

Orbicularis occuli —we know its in the eye region cause of occuli. Origin and insertion is when muscles include terms for the part of the body specific to there origin and location one part orgin and second part the insertion. Names may be long and difficult to pronounce. Illiocostalis thoracis is an example illium and ribs in the thoracic cavity. Fascicle Organization is like the appearance the rectus abdominis which in the muscle located in our abs. There is a descriptive term of the muscle appearance and also a location name rectus means straight and abdo lets us know that it is in the abdominal region.

Muscle positioning also known as Relative Position is a way where there is a term attached to exact positioning. For example externus for visible at the body surface or superficialis. Deeper muscles are termed internus or profundus. Muscles that stablize specific organs are known as extrinsic. Structural Characteristics some names have something to do with how many of them are in a group triceps and quadriceps are prime examples having 3 muscles in the triceps and quadriceps has four muscles. Shapes of the muscles also can be a way to name them trapezius is like trapazoid and orbi- is like circle.

Size also has a play in naming long (longus), smaller ,(minor) smallest (minimus),and so forth. ? Action can play a part in naming. For example how the muscle moves or what it moves. For example abductor, adductor, we know the movement associated with this so that helps to identify. An example is the Extensor Digitorum muscle of the forearm. It extends the four fingers of the hand. ? ? ? Name the principal axial muscles of the body and describe their origins, insertions, actions, and innervations.

They are the head and neck muscles, muscles of the vertebral column, oblique and rectus muscles, as well as the muscles of the pelvic floor. The muscle groups of the head and neck have 6 muscle groups. The muscles that perform facial expression are originating on the skull. Extrinsic eye muscles are originating on the surface of the orbit and can also control the positioning of the eye. Muscles that move the mandible are the muscles of mastication. Tongue muscles end in glossus. The pharynx muscles start the beginning of the process of swallowing.

Neck muscles on the anterior side support pharynx and tongue; they also push down the mandible and can control larynx position. Orbicularis oris constricts the mouth openeing. Buccinator moves food around within the mouth Epicranium are muscles of the scalp. Temporoparietalis, Occipiofrontalis are the frontal and occiital bellies they are separated by the epicranial aponeurosis. The anterior surface of the neck. Is covered by the Platysma. The extra ocular muscles include Inferior, medial, superior and lateral rectus.

As well as inferior and superior oblique muscles. The strongest jaw muscle is the masseter. It is assisted by the temporalis which helps lift the mandible and the pterygoid muscles help in positiong the mandible. Palatoglossus originates at palate. Styloglossus originate at syloid process. Genioglossus originates at the chin, Hypoglossus originates at hyoid bone. Pharyngeal constrictor muscles:–move food into esophagus Elevation of the larynx is performed by the Laryngeal elevator muscles Palatal muscles aid in lifting the soft palate.

Digastric:–from chin to hyoid, and hyoid to mastoid Mylohyoid floor of the mouth Geniohyoid between hyoid and chin Stylohyoid between hyloid and styloid Sternocleidomastoid from clavicle and sternum to mastoid The scapula, clavicle, first rib, and hyoid. Are connected by the Omohyoid Spinal extensors or erector spinae muscles (superficial and deep) Spinal flexors (transversospinalis) Superficial Spinal Extensors include Spinalis group,Longissimus group,Iliocostalis group.

Deep Spinal Extensors include ,Semispinalis group, Multifidus , Interspinalis ,Intertransversarii , and Rotatores muscles. In the Neck longus capitis and longus colli are muscles that rotate and flex the neck In the lumbar regioin quadratus lumborum muscles,depress the ribs and the flex spine. Vertebral column, oblique and rectus muscles. Oblique muscles are responsible to compress underlying structures and rotate vertebral column.

Rectus muscles flex vertebral column ,oppose erector spinae Oblique muscles Cervical region scalene muscles flex the neck Thoracic region the intercostal muscles (external and internal intercostals): Control breathing movements of ribs transversus thoracis cross inner surface of ribs Abdominopelvic region (same pattern as thoracic): Include external and internal oblique muscles Transversus abdominis rectus group(Rectus abdominis) are between xiphoid process and pubic symphysis they are divided longitudinally by linea alba and divided transversely by tendinous inscriptions Diaphragmatic muscle or diaphragm performs respiration, divides thoracic and abdominal cavities

Pelvic muscle functions Support organism the pelvic cavity, control movement of materials through urethra and anus and flex the sacrum and coccyx. The Perineum is the muscular sheet forming the pelvic floor. The Perineum is divided to anterior urogenital triangle , posterior anal triangle. The Pelvic Diaphragm supports the anal triangle, and deep muscular layer extending to pubis The Urogenital Diaphragm Is the deep muscular layer between pubic bones: Its functions are to support the pelvic floor and muscles of the urethra Superficial muscles of the urogenital triangle support external genitalia References: Martini, FH (2009). Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology 8th edition ? ?

Name the principal appendicular muscles of the body and describe their origins, insertions, actions, and innervations. The Appendicular Muscles are used to stabilize and position the pectoral and pelvic girdles, as well as move the upper and lower limbs. Appendicular Muscles division includes Muscles of the upper limbs and shoulders which move the arm, position the pectoral girdle, move the hand , fingers and forearm. The other division is Pelvis and lower limbs muscles. The muscles that Position the Pectoral Girdle are composed of 6 muscles Trapezius which is superficial it covers neck and back to base of skull it also inserts on clavicles and scapular spines.

Rhomboid and levator scapulae which is deep to trapezius it attaches to cervical and thoracic vertebrae and inserts on the scapular border Serratus anterior is on the chest it originates along the ribs inserts on the anterior scapular margin. Subclavius originates on the ribs and inserts on the clavicle. Pectoralis minor attaches to the scapula. There are 9 Muscles used to move the Arm. Deltoid the major abductor. Supraspinatus which assists deltoid. Subscapularis and teres major both produce medial rotation at shoulder. Infraspinatus and teres minor both produce lateral rotation at shoulder. Coracobrachialis that attaches to scapula and produces flexion and adduction at shoulder.

Pectoralis major which are between anterior chest and greater tubercle of humerus and produces a flexion at shoulder joint Latissimus dorsi located between the thoracic vertebrae and the humerus its movement that it produces is an extension at shoulder joint The Rotator Cuff has muscles involved in shoulder rotation they are supraspinatus, subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor,and their tendons Moving down the arm there are muscles that move the forearm and hand. They originate on the humerus and insert on the forearm exceptions the major flexor or biceps brachii, the major extensor or triceps brachii. There are Extensors mainly located on the posterior and lateral surfaces of the arm. Flexors are mainly on medial and anterior surfaces. 13 Muscles are used in movement of the forearm and hand.

Biceps brachii:flexes elbow stabilizes shoulder joint Triceps brachii:extends elbow originates on scapula inserts on olecranon Brachialis and brachioradialis flex elbow originates on scapula inserts on radial tuberosity Anconeus opposes brachialis Palmaris longus superficial is what flexes wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris superficial is used to flex wrist and adducts wrist Flexor carpi radialis superficial,flexes wrist,abducts wrist Extensor carpi radialis superficial,extends wrist,abducts wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris superficial,extends wrist, adducts wrist Pronator teres and supinator originate on humerus and ulna, rotate radius Pronator quadratus originates on ulna assists pronator teres

Extrinsic muscles of the hand move the hand and fingers they are entirely within forearm only tendons cross wrist (in synovial tendon sheaths) The muscles are the extensor retinaculum which is a wide band of connective tissueposterior surface of wrist and stabilizes tendons of extensor muscles. The flexor retinaculum is on the anterior surface of wrist it stabilizes tendons of the flexor muscles. Muscles of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs include the the pelvic girdle which is tightly bound to axial skeleton it permits little movement and has few muscles The Muscles that Position the Lower Limbs consist of ,Muscles that move the thigh and Muscles that move the leg, Muscles that move the foot and toes Muscles that Move the Thigh are the gluteal muscles , lateral rotators ,adductors Iliopsoas. Cover lateral surfaces of ilia Gluteus maximus is the largest most posterior gluteal muscle it produces extension and lateral rotation at hip.

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