Who suffered when the gap between the rich patricians and poor plebeians grew?
building at home
Rome’s armies were victorious wherever they went, but problems were ________.
During the 100 B.C., farmers of small plots of land were sinking into ____ and _____.
they were fighting in Rome’s wars
Why were many farmers unable to farm?
Hannibal’s invasion of Italy
When did others suffer damage to their farms?
Small farmers could not compete with wealthy Romans who were buying up land to create ______, or large farming estates.
force small farmers out of business
By using enslaved people to tend their crops, wealthy Romans could ____________.
sold their land and moved to cities for work
What did farmers do when they were faced with debts they could not pay?
enslaved people did most of the work
Why was it hard to find jobs?
If free men were lucky enough to find work, they earned ______.
What were Roman politicians worried about because of the widespread anger?
cheap food and entertainment
What did the Roman politicians provide for the poor to win their vote?
bread and circuses
This policy of “_______” helped many dishonest rulers come to power.
Who were the two wealthy brothers who tried to reform Rome’s government ?
the loss of small farms
What did they believe that many of Rome’s problems were caused by?
public land and divide it among the landless Romans
What did they ask the Senate to take back from the rich?
they were killed by senators who opposed their attempts
What happened to both Tiberius and Gaius when the senators fought their proposals?
Who was the person that became consul in 107 B.C. that changed the situation with the army and the government?
he began to recruit soldiers from the poor and paid them wages and promised them land
What did Marius do to help the poor being the small farming was disappearing?
What did Marius’s new military system led to?
What was the name of the man that gave a challenge to Marius?
In _______, Sulla drove Marius out of Rome and declared himself dictator.
How long did Sulla spend reforming the Roman government before resigning from office?
men who saw Sulla gain power by using an army decided to follow his path and civil war
What happened after Sulla stepped down from office?
Crassus, Pompey, Julius Caesar
Who were the three men that became on top in 60 B.C.?
______ was a military leader and one of the richest men in Rome.
______ and ______ were not as rich, but both were successful military men.
A ________ is a political alliance of three people.
Pompey was in _______.
Crassus was in _______.
Julius Caesar was in ______.
he battled foreign tribes and invaded Britain
What made Caesar a hero to Rome’s lower class?
that he was becoming too popular and might seize power like Sulla
What feared senators and other back home about Caesar?
After Crassus was killed in battle in 53 B.C., the Senate decided that ______ should return to Italy and rule alone.
Who ordered Caesar to give up his army and return home in 49 B.C.?
What did Caesar and his 5,000 soldiers cross when they marched into Italy?
What did Caesar start by crossing the Rubicon?
he drove Pompey out of Italy and destroyed his army in Greece
What was Caesar able to do because of him being a better general?
How long did Caesar declare himself dictator of Rome?
granted citizenship to people living in Rome’s territories,
started new colonies to provide land for the landless,
ordered landowners to hire more free workers
What were three things Caesar did to make changes in Rome?
What was the calendar that Caesar created called?
The calendar was modified slightly and became known as the ________ calendar.
the birth of Christ
What was the Gregorian calendar based on?
wanted to be king
Caesar’s enemies feared that he _______.
In ____ B.C., Caesar’s enemies surrounded him and stabbed him to death.
beware the Ides of March
Caesar ignored a famous warning to “______”,
refers to Caesar’s return to Italy. Caesar knew that by crossing the Rubicon he would begin a civil war and be victorious or destroyed.
What is the origin of the phrase “crossing the Rubicon” and what does it mean?
put it into another civil war
What did Caesar’s death do to Rome?
by men who had killed Caesar and the other side by Caesar’s grandnephew and top generals
After Caesar’s death when the civil war broke out again who were the two sides led by?
After defeating Caesar’s assassins, Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus created the ________.
Octavian forced Lepidus to _____ from politics and the remaining leaders divided the Roman world between themselves.
Octavian took the _____.
______ took the east.
Queen Cleopatra VII
With whom did Antony fall in love with and formed an alliance with her?
to keep him from taking over the republic
Why did Octavian declare war on Antony?
Octavian defeated Antony and Cleopatra’s forces at the Battle of _____.
the Roman Empire
What was the name of the new system of government Octavian began?
______ was a political leader, writer, and public speaker who was against dictators.
Cicero favored a ________ government and supported Octavian.
Who did Octavian give some of the power too?
Octavian took the title _____ meaning “revered one.”
declared himself ruler for life
How was Octavian like Caesar?
he reformed the government so that a Senate with limited power existed while he remained in charge
How was Octavian different from Caesar?
a political leader whose ideas on a representative government with limited powers influenced the U.S. Constitution
Who was Cicero, and how did he influence the writers of the U.S. Constitution?
it was the use of cheap food and free entertainment to win the support from the poor
What was the “bread and circuses” policy, and how did Roman politicians benefit from it?
provided land for the poor and created new jobs. He ordered landholders to hire more free workers.
What reforms did Julius Caesar put in place that increased his popularity with poor and working-class Romans?