This seminar rubric is discussed about 3D Scanning Technology and 3D Modeling. At the terminal, I will besides take the most suited technique to utilize in my Concluding Year Undertaking.
Presents, 3D engineering was nearing us step by measure. However, most of the people still do non cognize that, what is 3D and how they do it? Well, as a good illustration what sort of 3D that appear in our existent life and is so celebrated late is 3D film.
I think that most of the child or film pursuer ticker 3D film before for certain. For illustration Avatar 3D, Ice Age 2 3D, Resident Evil: After Life 3D and many others.
However, most of the people do non understand that how does 3D plants, and how they create 3D theoretical account. In my seminar I would wish to present different types of 3D mold, can comparison between them. But for certain, different type of 3D mold technique are uses in different country.
So, I will present most of them in this seminar.
About all 3D theoretical accounts can be divided into two classs.
Solid – These theoretical accounts define the volume of the object they represent ( like a stone ) . These are more realistic, but more hard to construct. Solid theoretical accounts are largely used for nonvisual simulations such as medical and technology simulations, for CAD and specialized ocular applications such as beam tracing and constructive solid geometry
Shell/boundary – These theoretical accounts represent the surface. These are easier to work with than solid theoretical accounts.
Almost all ocular theoretical accounts used in games and movie are shell theoretical accounts.
Technology was improved and alterations quickly twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours. A new engineering call 3D Digitizing which will utilize particular equipment such as Terrestrial Laser Scanner, 3D Scanner and others was invented. These machines can provides extremely accurate, 3-dimensional images enabling interior decorators to see and work straight with real-world conditions by sing and pull stringsing rich point-clouds in computer-aided design package. In the chapter below we will travel deeper about this engineering which was widely used in those Fieldss that involved 3D.
Even many new and advanced type of patterning technique was found, many interior decorator, building, and others will still utilize the basic mold technique, such as Polygonal mold, NURBS, Splines & A ; Patches mold, Primitives patterning and Sculpt mold. In the chapter below, we will research more about these techniques that are still widely used for those interior decorators and the ground.
3D Digitizing can be specifying as transform the existent object ( such as a edifice ) to a digitized format. It besides can be define as a artworks input system that records x, Y and omega co-ordinates of a existent object. Contact is made with assorted points on the object ‘s surface by a light detector, sound detector, robotic instrument or pen.
The chief device for 3D Digitizing is 3D Scanner which was so popular and most common device that usage for 3D Digitizing. 3D scanner is a device that analyzes a real-world object or environment to roll up informations on its form and perchance its visual aspect. The gathered informations can so be used to build digital, three dimensional theoretical accounts utile for a broad assortment of applications
There were 3 types of 3D Scanner:
– Non-contact Active
– Non-contact Passive.
Contact 3D Scanner
As the definition of “ contact ” which means the 3D Scanner that have physical contact with the object that need to be scan. A CMM ( organize mensurating machine ) is a most common illustration for contact 3D scanner. It is used largely in fabrication and can be really precise.
CMM is composed of three axes, an Ten, Y and Z. These axes are extraneous to each other in a typical three dimensional co-ordinate system. Each axis has a graduated table system that indicates the location of that axis. The machine will read the input from the touch investigation, as directed by the operator or coder. The machine so uses the X, Y, Z co-ordinates of each of these points to find size and place. Typical preciseness of a co-ordinate measurement machine is measured in Microns.
The disadvantage of CMMs though, is that it requires contact with the object being scanned. Therefore, the act of scanning the object might modify or damage it. It was a really serious job when demand to scan with those valuable old-timer or those artefacts. The other disadvantage of CMMs was clip devouring. It may take a long clip to complete scan a big or refinement object.
Figure 1 – CMM to scan little object Figure 2 CMM to scan large object
Critical Evaluation on Contact 3D Scanner
Basically, the biggest job for Contact 3D Scanner is it requires holding physical contact with the object during scanning procedure, and sometimes it might damage the object wanted to scan. Furthermore, if the object was an artefact or old-timer, one time have harm there is no other replacing or will be really dearly-won.
Another job for Contact 3D scanner, CMM as reference above is the scanning velocity. CMM need to hold physical contact with the object and most of the object has different form and different surface. So scanning the object utilizing CMM was a very clip devouring undertaking.
However, thanks to the disadvantages of CMM which is holding physical touch with object, the advantage of CMM is it can bring forth a really precise and accurate consequence.
So, as my concluding rating on Contact 3D Scanner, it is a really precise and accurate 3D scanner yet, I suggest that avoid from scan on those artifact and valuable object. Nowadays, velocity besides is a cardinal point of success, the velocity for Contact 3D Scanner was a biggest rock for it. So, if can extinguish the velocity job of Contact 3D Scanner, it will be a best scanning machine of all time.
Non-contact Active Scanner
Non-contact active scanners emit some sort of radiation or visible radiation and observe its contemplation in order to examine an object or environment. Possible types of emanations used include light, ultrasound or x-ray. Non-contact Active Scanner does non hold any physical touch with the object to scan.
There is few type of Non-Contact Active Scanner, such as
Each of them is usage in different field, but their map was same. The illustration I list was merely a few, it might be a batch of other Non-contact Active Scanner exist.
Time-of-flight 3D optical maser scanner uses laser visible radiation to scan the object. At the bosom of this type of scanner is a time-of-flight optical maser range finder. The optical maser range finder works like reverberation, but in light non in sound. It will breathe a visible radiation to an object that want to scan, and finds the distance of a surface by clocking the round-trip clip of a pulsation of visible radiation and the sum of clip before the reflected visible radiation is seen by a sensor is timed.
The optical maser range finder merely detects the distance of one point in its way of position. Therefore, the scanner scans its full field of position one point at a clip by altering the scope finder ‘s way of position to scan different points. The position way of the optical maser range finder can be changed either by revolving the scope finder itself, or by utilizing a system of revolving mirrors.
For those who were difficult to understand how Time-of-Flight plants, I strongly recommend that people go seek a vocal call House of Card by Radiohead and watch their MV. This MV was utilizing Time-of-Flight technique to make. Hopefully I can assist people to more understanding how it works.
Figure 3- This is the design for Time-of-Flight device
The triangulation 3D optical maser scanner uses laser visible radiation to examine the environment. Triangulation will breathe a optical maser that will reflect on the topic and exploits a camera to look for the location of the optical maser point. Depending on how far off the optical maser strikes a surface, the optical maser point appears at different topographic points in the camera ‘s field of position. The optical maser point, the camera and the optical maser emitter signifier a trigon, and that ‘s how this technique named. The length of one side of the trigon, the distance between the camera and the optical maser emitter is known. The angle of the optical maser emitter corner is besides known. The angle of the camera corner can be determined by looking at the location of the optical maser point in the camera ‘s field of position. These three pieces of information to the full determine the form and size of the trigon and gives the location of the optical maser point corner of the trigon. Figure 4 show how Triangulation 3D optical maser scanner plants.
Structured Light 3D Scanner
Structured light 3D scanners project a form of visible radiation on the object and observe the distortion of the form on the object. They are fundamentally non-contact optical systems, based about wholly on the rules of photogrammetry in order to transform image braces to come up information. They are able to accomplish information of really high denseness and of really high truth. [ 1 ]
The advantage of structured-light 3D scanners is speed. Structured Light Scanner scan multiple points or whole object in one clip merely, so it was really fast to digitise the scanned image in computing machine. This will cut down or eliminates the job of deformation from gesture. But the engineering was so beforehand today there were some bing systems are able to scan a traveling object in a real-time.
A real-time scanner a utilizing digital periphery projection and phase-shifting technique or besides can cognize as Assorted Structured Light Method was developed, to capture, reconstruct, and render high-density inside informations of dynamically deformable objects at 40 frames per second. Recently, another scanner is developed. This scanner can capture and treating achieves up to 120 frames per second.
Figure 5- Way Structured Light 3D Scanner work.
Critical Evaluation on Non-contact Active 3D Scanner
The disadvantage of Time-of-Flight scanners is that they can merely scan an object one point at a clip. Furthermore, the truth of Time-of-Flight scanner was non good plenty. This is because it is utilizing light and the velocity of visible radiation was highly fast, it will be really hard the calculate the unit of ammunition trip for the light travels and this will do the truth of the distance between object and scanner become really low.
Yet, it still has its advantage. As we know, velocity of visible radiation was really fast so Time-of-Flight scanner can run over a really long distance.
As a consequence, Time-of-Flight was ideal to utilize during scan object like hill, palace or others.
Unlike Time-of-Flight scanners, Triangulation scanners were merely like the antonym for Time-of-Flight scanners. Pro of Triangulation scanners is the truth when scanning the object is really high. Furthermore, the pro of triangulation scanners is their ability to finish low declaration scans in a affair of seconds.
Yet, the con of Triangulation Scanner is limited scope. Different with Time-of-Flight scanners, Triangulation scanners use camera alternatively of utilizing optical maser finder, so the scope to scan object was short.
As a decision, Triangulation was good in scanning smaller object like cup, tabular array or others.
Structured Light 3D Scanner
Structured Light 3D scanners able to scan multiple points or the full object at a same clip, as a consequence of that, the velocity for Structured Light 3D Scanner was fast.
Structured Light 3D Scanner was a good pick to implement in 3D Fieldss.It can give the consequence in really fast. But, I do n’t believe that it was good when we need to scan an big image or object, if usage Structured Light 3D Scanner to scan big object, it might will lose the preciseness and the truth.
Structured Light 3D Scanner is utilizing same theory or rule with Triangulation Scanner. In facts, Structured Light 3D Scanner was merely suited to those smaller object but non for big object.
Non-contact Passive 3D Scanner
The chief different between Active and Passive Scanners is Passive Scanners do non breathe any sort of radiation themselves, but alternatively it detect alterations in reflected ambient energy such as seeable or infrared visible radiation. Passive methods can be inexpensive because they do non necessitate emitters.
Basically, there was 2 type of Non-contact Passive 3D Scanner, such as
All the system and technique above merely necessitate camera to procedure, so it will be cheaper comparison to Non-contact Active 3D Scanner.
Stereoscopic normally employ two picture cameras, somewhat apart, looking at the same scene. By analysing the little differences between the images seen by each camera, it is possible to find the distance at each point in the images. This method was really familiar for those people who love to watch 3D film.
This system really was based on the same rule with Human Stereoscopic Vision. Cameras in Stereoscopic System were act like human eyes. As we know, human eyes can judge the distance of the object by seeing the object and human left oculus and right oculus will bring forth different image even is looking a same image. A really good illustration is, near your right oculus and see an object after attempt to shut your left oculus and see the object once more. You will acquire a different image between left oculus and right oculus.
Merely the same manner how the stereoscopic glass and cameras plants, two cameras put at different place and they will see different thing. By combine the image that recorded by the two cameras and judging the distance in between it will bring forth a 3D image.
Figure 6- Stereoscopic Image
Alternatively of utilizing two cameras in Stereoscopic, this system uses a individual camera, but takes multiple images under different lighting conditions. These techniques attempt to invert the image formation theoretical account in order to retrieve the surface orientation at each pel.
Figure 7 Figure 8
Figure 7 show the camera will take the image but in different way visible radiation beginning. The image taken will be different which show in Figure 8, so after that they will utilize system to calculate all images taken from different way of light beginning and bring forth a 3D image.
Critical Evaluation on Non-contact Passive Scanner
Basically, Stereoscopic and Photometric system does non breathe any radiation ; alternatively they usually will utilize a digital camera. Stereoscopic System functions merely like when we go watch 3D film. However, Stereoscopic system requires particular spectacless such as the 3D spectacless when watching 3D film to hold the 3D effects.
Photometric System was good because by supplying a different way of light beginnings, the surface of the object wanted to scan will be gaining control in inside informations, as a consequence of that, a precise and perfect 3D object can be present.
Last but non less, the most of import advantage of Non-contact Passive Scanner is cost. It does non necessitate any devices or machines but merely necessitate camera. So, it might be a good pick if the budget was tight but wanted to seek how to make 3D object.
3D Scanning was an progress engineering to make 3D object, but nil is perfect even with all those high tech devices. For illustration in film field, people will critics those object or images even they already utilizing most high tech engineering and technique. So to cut down those critics, we have to minimise those defects. By utilizing 3D mold, we can make 3D object by ain manus and besides can do the object every bit perfect as possible. This is because 3D patterning techniques can pull or alter the item of the object. User may besides can maximise or whizz in the object to alter even a little atom.
3D patterning refers to the creative activity of 3D objects that are defined mathematically and geometrically. There were some illustration or templet can establish in that 3D patterning package such as 3D Max, Lightwave, MAYA and others.
There was few type of patterning techniques, such as
Polygons are straight-sided forms, defined by 3-dimensional points and the consecutive line that connect them. The interior part of the polygon is called the face. Vertexs, Edges and faces are the basic constituents of polygons as show in Figure 9. User can choose and modify polygons utilizing these basic constituents.
An single polygon normally call as Face, and it was define as the country of three or more vertices and nexus with the borders. When many faces are connected together, it will organize as polygon mesh. Polygon mesh will portion the vertices and borders that nexus with another polygon mesh. These polygons mesh that portion vertices and borders are known as shared vertices or shared borders. Figure 10 show sample for portion vertices.
Figure 9 Figure 10
NURBS was known as Non-uniform Rational B-spline, it uses mathematical representations of 3-D geometry that can accurately depict any form from a simple 2-D line, circle, discharge, or curve to the most complex 3-D organic free-form surface or solid. Because of their flexibleness and truth, NURBS theoretical accounts can be used in any procedure from illustration and life to fabrication.
NURBS usage spline curves, which are influenced by leaden Control Points. The curve are follows the point by increasing the weight for a point will draw the curve closer to that point. NURBS are genuinely smooth surfaces, non estimates utilizing little level surfaces, and so are peculiarly suited for organic mold.
Control Points is the chief portion for NURBS mold, it determine the form of the curve. Each point of the curve is computed by taking a leaden amount of a figure of control points. The smoothness is determined by the grade of the multinomial.
The knot vector is a sequence of parametric quantity values that determines where and how the control points affect the NURBS curve. A knot can be inserted into a NURBS curve without altering the form of the curve. The coveted side consequence of this operation is an extra control point that provides finer control of the related part of the NURBS curve or surface.
Figure 11- Control Point and Control Polygon when utilizing NURBS
Another well know technique in 3D mold. Cubes, Pyramid, Cone, Sphere, Cylinder and Torus are known as 3D crude objects. Crude object is a base or basic to make more complex objects.
All basic crude objects could be extended to other form and known as “ extended ” 3D primitives. By utilizing drawn-out 3D crude objects it can make more complex object. Another method to make complex object is combine two or more basic crude object. Figure 13 show the illustration of complex object that created from basic crude object.
Figure 12- Basic Primitive Objects for Primitive Modeling
Figure 13- Complex Objects
Critical Evaluation on 3D Modeling
The chief advantage for Polygonal Modeling is the Details or Branched theoretical account is really easy. As we know Polygonal Modeling 3 chief constituents are vertices, border and face, it was really easy to associate or make the theoretical account. For illustration when manus need to unify with the fingers, they merely need to associate or interrupt the point that is connected so that it can be merge. Another advantage is all the polygonal theoretical accounts are being recognized by about all of the 3D life package or rendering package, so it can reassign the theoretical account to any package.
Data size of a complex polygon theoretical account will be larger comparison with Primitive theoretical accounts, and this is the chief disadvantages of Polygon Modeling. Polygonal Modeling merely use polygon to make an object, unlike Primitive it have many other basic object that can alter into complex object. For illustration, make a square box by utilizing Polygonal Modeling will needed more informations size compare Primitive Modeling, because Polygonal Modeling need to set possibly a 1000 of polygon ( or face ) and combine in one square box.
Well, NURBS Modeling was so difficult to command. it is because user demand to be manage the control point. The control point is find the curve of the object, it the control point does non cipher or manage in good, it will do the whole object go bogus or non nice.
However, if the control point was control and calculate with perfect, the theoretical account created will be ace smooth. Furthermore, the declaration for NURBS mold is independency. No affair how near the camera rapid climb in to NURBS theoretical account, it ‘s surface will still stay smooth.
Crude Modeling can be really speedy and easy to build and the signifiers are define by mathematically. So it can be really precise and besides can make different type of theoretical accounts by utilizing the basic theoretical account available.
But, Crude Mold does non suited to patterning organic construction. It is because from the basic theoretical account that available, is difficult to alter it to organic construction such as human organic structure.
3D Scanners was an advanced engineering to scan the image, but the cost to implement 3D Scanners might be a small spot high. In the other manus, 3D mold was a low cost but clip devouring to make a 3D theoretical account.
Yet, even the 3D theoretical account scan by utilizing 3D scanner besides need to redact or modify utilizing 3D patterning package to do the theoretical account perfect and nice. Unlike 3D Scanner, 3D Modeling ca n’t be able to make a precise and perfect theoretical account if without a set of informations that about the theoretical account that need to be patterning.
3D Scanners have their ain pros and cons merely like 3D Modeling. As for my Concluding Year Undertaking I had to take 3D Modeling technique to make the 3D theoretical accounts. This is because 3D Scanners techniques was excessively beforehand for me, even it can make a 3D theoretical account with really fast but I think that 3D mold is merely plenty for me. Furthermore, 3D Scanners are more tend to industrial field.
Yet, if the budget is allow, I would be really pleasure if can utilize 3D scanners in my Concluding Year Undertaking. It non merely can salvage the clip, it can besides supply a more precise of 3D theoretical account.
So, for the concluding decision, I will take 3D mold to be usage in my Concluding Year Undertaking in patterning the Sport Complex of College Tunku Abdul Rahman.
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