(3) Silicates and Catalysis Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute (CSMCRI), Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India reported that ZrO2 has become the ideal media for applications in photonics due to its excellent mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and stable photochemical properties. They Synthesized Nanocrystalline zirconia having predominantly tetragonal crystalline phase by sol-gel technique. 
(4) Nanobioelectronics Laboratory Department of Biotechnology Delhi Technological University, Department of Physics and Astrophysics University of Delhi, Dr. B. K. Yadav, Prof. A. K. Dewan Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre reported that ZrO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized via the hydrothermal method and its salinization has been achieved.
Thin films of APTES/ZrO2/ITO have been fabricated via electrophoretic deposition and followed by covalent immobilization of antibodies. The salivary CYFRA-21-1 antigen has been used as a biomarker for the detection of oral cancer. 
2.3 Importance of the proposed project in the context of current status (Maximum 1 page)
(Highlight what is the new area or gap which will be solved in the project in relating to what is already known.
This is a very important section to project the novelty content of the proposal)
1. Energy band gap is one of the key aspects which modulated the efficiency of ZrO2 for photovoltaic and the photocatalytic conversion. However, ZrO2 is sensitive to UV portion of the light spectrum due to its large band gap (7.7-7.8 eV) with very low efficiency. It is extremely important to develop photocatalysts with high catalytic activities under the UV.
2. Doping of ZrO2 with anions, transition metals and rare earth metals are promising ways to deal with an alteration in the absorption edge and to enhance photocatalytic activity.
Extraordinary activities like morphological alteration, metal or non-metal ion doping, oxygen vacancy creation, grouping with other semiconductors etc., have been attributed to fabricate ZrO2-based photocatalysts delicate to UV light with a specific end goal to make utilization of UV light energy much proficiently. Therefore, many researchers have focused on improving the photo-activity of ZrO2.
3. It has been observed that ZrO2 nanoparticles have been synthesized via the hydrothermal method and its salinization has been achieved. Thin films of APTES/ZrO2/ITO have been fabricated via electrophoretic deposition and followed by covalent immobilization of antibodies. The salivary CYFRA-21-1 antigen has been used as a biomarker for the detection of oral cancer. But there is no report on fabrication of symmetrical ZrO2 NW by GLAD technique using E-Beam Evaporator and subsequent doping technique to improve the efficiency of the fabricated biosensor.
4. The available reports are on the growth of ZrO2 nanowire by Catalyst-assisted laser-ablation method, Vapour-solid, Sol-gel, AAO-template solution method. There is no report on metal doping through annealing on ZrO2 nanowire fabricated by GLAD technique using E-Beam Evaporator.
2.4 If the project is location specific, basis for selection of location be highlighted:
(Maximum 1/2 page)
This project is not location centric but if the project is running very gently, then our North-Eastern region will be developing through this project. It can be used in optoelectronic applications especially for UV light detection. It can also be used as biosensor for cancer detection specially. The technique we will be employed here, a cost effective and catalytic free growth. Therefore if we will be able to complete the project successfully, efficient ZrO2 based UV detector and efficient biosensor as an end product can be batch fabricated and manufactured which may partially solve the employability issue of this particular region. Additionally, a biosensor for detection of cancer is an attractive alternative with the immense potential for developing the biosensor for in-home testing.
3. Work Plan:
3.1 Methodology:(Maximum of 5 pages)
(It should contain all the details of how each of the objectives will be addressed. This section must be detailed and have clear plans, not vague and generalized statements. It should have several schemes, tables, figures, equations etc. in addition to text, explanation and justification of why the project research plan will work)
Three-dimensional nanostructures can be fabricated by the Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique. GLAD are one type of PVD method (bottom up approach) that enables the fabrication of nano-engineered films. The vapour created is largely collimated so that the grown thin films (TF) have a columnar morphology. There is a simple physics behind the nanostructure formation in Oblique Angle Deposition (OAD) and Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD). By rotating the substrate in both polar and azimuthally directions, one can fabricate desired nanostructures, such as nanorod arrays with different shapes, nano spring arrays, and even multilayer nanostructures. Three-dimensional control of the nanostructure with additional capability of self-alignment can be obtained through this method. Almost all type of materials can be fabricated into preferred nanostructures.
The film microstructure which produces these novel properties and capabilities depends on ballistic shadowing and formation of columnar microstructures during deposition. The experimental setup for OAD is very simple, which is shown in Fig.1.
If we can treat the incoming vapour flux as a vector F as shown in Fig.1.The flux has two components, a vertical component F?=Fcos? and a lateral component (a vector) FII=Fsin?. The substrate will receive the vapour flux from both the vertical and lateral directions. During the deposition of thin film on to a flat substrate, initially the impinging atoms will randomly form islands on the substrate. As deposition proceeds, the initial nucleated islands will act as shadowing centres, and all the tallest islands will receive more impinging atoms as compared to the shorter ones (shadowing effect).This competition process will only leave the tallest islands grow into columns and a nano-columnar film will be formed. Clearly, the lateral component FII is the source of the shadowing effect. For the oblique angle deposition, since FII remains constant during deposition, a columnar film with tilt angle ??will be formed. In general, the column tilt angle ??is less than the vapor incident angle ?, and follows the empirical tangent rule, tan?=?tan?, for small ?, or the cosine rule ?=?- arcsin (1-cos?)/2.
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