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The Indus civilization’s economy appears to have depended significantly on trade, which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. The IVC may have been the first civilization to use wheeled transport.[52] These advances may have included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today, as well as boats. Most of these boats were probably small, flat-bottomed craft, perhaps driven by sail, similar to those one can see on the Indus River today; however, there is secondary evidence of seagoing craft.

Archaeologists have discovered a massive, dredged canal and what they regard as a docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal in western India (Gujarat state). An extensive canal network, used for irrigation, has however also been discovered by H.-P. Francfort. During 4300–3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age), the Indus Valley Civilization area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northernIran which suggest considerable mobility and trade.

During the Early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE), similarities in pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments, etc.

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document intensive caravan trade with Central Asia and the Iranian plateau.[53] Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts, the trade networks, economically, integrated a huge area, including portions of Afghanistan, the coastal regions of Persia, northern and western India, and Mesopotamia. There is some evidence that trade contacts extended to Crete and possibly to Egypt.[54]

There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the middle Harappan Phase, with much commerce being handled by “middlemen merchants from Dilmun” (modern Bahrain and Failakalocated in the Persian Gulf).

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[55] Such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the innovative development of plank-built watercraft, equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth. Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River, north of Jiwani), Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River, north of Pasni), and Balakot (near Sonmiani) in Pakistan along with Lothal in India testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. Shallow harbors located at the estuaries of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities economic activities

Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the Indus Valley people. Crops such as wheat, barley, peas and bananas were raised. In the olden days, there was enough rain in that region and occasional floods brought a great deal of fertile soil to the area. People used to plough the land with wooden ploughshares drawn by men and oxen. From the existence of granaries it is concluded that there were surplus food-grains.

Domestication of Animals: The people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was considered a great asset in the farming community. Crafts The discovery of spindles at the sites of Harappan culture shows that the people used to spin and weave. Goldsmiths made jewellery of gold, silver and precious stones. People were also engaged in brick-laying and in the art of sculpture. The making of seals was developed during this period. Bronze-smiths made various types of weapons and tools such as knives, spears, saws and axes which were used in daily life.

Trade: Traders carried on trade in the country as well as with other countries like Egypt, Babylon and Afghanistan. Many seals of Harappa found in Mesopotamia show that trade existed between the two countries. The seals were made of terracotta and were used by merchants to stamp their goods.

he Indus Valley Civilization had developed skills in pottery, painting and sculpture amongst others. Sculpture appeared to have made great advancements based on the various artifacts that have been found. The Indus Valley Civilization made sculptures mainly in stone, metal and terra-cotta. The famous bust of the bearded man, and the male torso are examples of such work. The Indus Valley Civilization had also made great advances in metal sculptures using a fascinating technique to make sculptures out of bronze. The process was known as the lost wax process. In this process the
sculptures were first made out of wax. A layer of clay was then put over this wax, and the sculpture was then heated. This resulted in the melting of the wax, leaving behind a hollow mould. Molten metal was then poured into this mould. After cooling the clay was removed, and a metal sculpture remained. A beautiful example of such work, is the naked dancing girl found at Mohenjo-Daro.

She is covered with jewellery, wearing several necklaces and bangles. Bronze figures of buffalos and the humped bull have also been found. The Indus Valley Civilization also made several sculptures out of terra-cotta, a fine example being a figure of the Mother Goddess. It shows the Mother Goddess as a mark of fertility and prosperity. The Indus Valley Civilization had also developed skills in pottery and painting. They used a special type of clay, which was baked. Once the pot was made, the painters would paint beautiful designs, the theme being birds, animals and men. The quality of painting on these pots show that the Indus Valley Civilization had some talented artists. The Indus Valley Civilization is famous for the enigmatic seals that were discovered at the various cities.

These seals usually had some animal or human engraved on them along with a script at the bottom which has not been deciphered as yet. The seals were apparently used by merchants in trade, as a means of identifying their goods. The Indus Valley Civilization had flourishing trade relations with various parts of Asia, and the large number of unique seals discovered indicates that there was a large trading community. Some of the important seals, which had been found frequently are: The Pashupati Seal: This seal depicts what is probably the modern Hindu God, Shiv. Lord Shiv is surrounded by various animals like the rhino, the buffalo, the elephant and the tiger. He wears a crown of horns on his head. He is believed to have been considered by the Indus Valley Civilization people as the lord of the animals. The Unicorn Seal: This is based on a fictional animal that the Indus Valley Civilization people had conjured up. It is an example of early fictional art. The Bull Seal: The Bull seal, shows a humped bull displaying a strong and energetic bull.

The figure has been made well, a proof of the fine artistic skills acquired by the people of that time. The Indus Valley Civilization had developed skills in pottery, painting and sculpture amongst others. Sculpture appeared to have made great advancements based on the various artifacts that have been found. The Indus Valley Civilization made sculptures mainly in stone, metal and terra-cotta. The famous bust of the bearded man, and the male torso are examples of such work. The Indus Valley Civilization had also made great advances in metal sculptures using a fascinating technique to make sculptures out of bronze. The process was known as the lost wax process. In this process the sculptures were first made out of wax. A layer of clay was then put over this wax, and the sculpture was then heated.

This resulted in the melting of the wax, leaving behind a hollow mould. Molten metal was then poured into this mould. After cooling the clay was removed, and a metal sculpture remained. A beautiful example of such work, is the naked dancing girl found at Mohenjo-Daro. She is covered with jewellery, wearing several necklaces and bangles. Bronze figures of buffalos and the humped bull have also been found. The Indus Valley Civilization also made several sculptures out of terra-cotta, a fine example being a figure of the Mother Goddess. It shows the Mother Goddess as a mark of fertility and prosperity. The Indus Valley Civilization had also developed skills in pottery and painting. They used a special type of clay, which was baked. Once the pot was made, the painters would paint beautiful designs, the theme being birds, animals and men. The quality of painting on these pots show that the Indus Valley Civilization had some talented artists.

The Indus Valley Civilization is famous for the enigmatic seals that were discovered at the various cities. These seals usually had some animal or human engraved on them along with a script at the bottom which has not been deciphered as yet. The seals were apparently used by merchants in trade, as a means of identifying their goods. The Indus Valley Civilization had flourishing trade relations with various parts of Asia, and the large number of unique seals discovered indicates that there was a large trading community. Some of the important seals, which had been found frequently are: The Pashupati Seal: This seal depicts what is probably the modern Hindu God, Shiv.

Lord Shiv is surrounded by various animals like the rhino, the buffalo, the elephant and the tiger. He wears a crown of horns on his head. He is believed to have been considered by the Indus Valley Civilization people as the lord of the animals. The Unicorn Seal: This is based on a fictional animal that the Indus Valley Civilization people had conjured up. It is an example of early fictional art. The Bull Seal: The Bull seal, shows a humped bull displaying a strong and energetic bull. The figure has been made well, a proof of the fine artistic skills acquired by the people of that time.

The people of the Indus Valley Civilization had achieved some spectacular standards when it came to building their cities. Each city was carefully planned and at the peak of the civilization housed almost 40,000 people. A typical city would be divided into two sections, each fortified separately. One section, known as the acropolis, was located on an artificially raised mound while the other level was on level ground. The acropolis contained the important buildings of the city, like the assembly halls, religious structures, granaries and in the case of Mohenjo-Daro the famous Great Bath. The lower section of the city was where the housing for the inhabitants was located. It was here where some truly amazing features have been discovered. The city was well connected with broad roads about 30 meters long which met at right angles.

The houses were located in the rectangular squares thus formed. Houses were built with standardized baked bricks (which had a ratio of length to width to thickness at 4:2:1) and many had spacious courtyards. Some of the bigger houses even had multiple stories (levels) and paved floors. What is noteworthy is that almost every house had its own wells, drains and bathrooms. Each house was connected directly to an excellent underground sewer system that ran throughout the city. The inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization cities enjoyed to a degree unknown in the ancient world not only sanitary conveniences, but also a highly developed municipal life. What is absolutely astounding is that these cities existed close to five thousand years ago. Granaries

A special feature of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization was the large granary that existed. As a structure it is particularly impressive, running 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and 15 feet high. This gave the granary an astounding 168,750 cubic feet of space. Thegranary was divided into 27 compartment in three rows. The granary was well ventilated and it was possible to fill grain in from outside. The large size of the granary probably indicates a highly developed agricultural civilization. Great Bath

The city of Mohenjo-Daro possessed an amazing structure known as the Great Bath. The entire structure is about 179 feet long and 107 feet wide. The complex has a large quadrangle in the center with galleries and rooms on all sides. In the center of this quadrangle there is a large swimming enclosure that is 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. The entire complex is connected to an elaborate water supply and sewer system. The Great Bath was probably used for religious or ritualistic purposes. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization had achieved some spectacular standards when it came to building their cities. Each city was carefully planned and at the peak of the civilization housed almost 40,000 people. A typical city would be divided into two sections, each fortified separately.

One section, known as the acropolis, was located on an artificially raised mound while the other level was on level ground. The acropolis contained the important buildings of the city, like the assembly halls, religious structures, granaries and in the case of Mohenjo-Daro the famous Great Bath. The lower section of the city was where the housing for the inhabitants was located. It was here where some truly amazing features have been discovered. The city was well connected with broad roads about 30 meters long which met at right angles.

The houses were located in the rectangular squares thus formed. Houses were built with standardized baked bricks (which had a ratio of length to width to thickness at 4:2:1) and many had spacious courtyards. Some of the bigger houses even had multiple stories (levels) and paved floors. What is noteworthy is that almost every house had its own wells, drains and bathrooms. Each house was connected directly to an excellent underground sewer system that ran throughout the city. The inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization cities enjoyed to a degree unknown in the ancient world not only sanitary conveniences, but also a highly developed municipal life. What is absolutely astounding is that these cities existed close to five thousand years ago.

Granaries

A special feature of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization was the large granary that existed. As a structure it is particularly impressive, running 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and 15 feet high. This gave the granary an astounding 168,750 cubic feet of space. The granary was divided into 27 compartment in three rows. The granary was well ventilated and it was possible to fill grain in from outside. The large size of the granary probably indicates a highly developed agricultural civilization.

Great Bath

The city of Mohenjo-Daro possessed an amazing structure known as the Great Bath. The entire structure is about 179 feet long and 107 feet wide. The complex has a large quadrangle in the center with galleries and rooms on all sides. In the center of this quadrangle there is a large swimming enclosure that is 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. The entire complex is connected to an elaborate water supply and sewer system. The Great Bath was probably used for religious or ritualistic purposes. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization had achieved some spectacular standards when it came to building their cities. Each city was carefully planned and at the peak of the civilization housed almost 40,000 people. A typical city would be divided into two sections, each fortified separately. One section, known as the acropolis, was located on an artificially raised mound while the other level was on level ground.

The acropolis contained the important buildings of the city, like the assembly halls, religious structures, granaries and in the case of Mohenjo-Daro the famous Great Bath. The lower section of the city was where the housing for the inhabitants was located. It was here where some truly amazing features have been discovered. The city was well connected with broad roads about 30 meters long which met at right angles. The houses were located in the rectangular squares thus formed.

Houses were built with standardized baked bricks (which had a ratio of length to width to thickness at 4:2:1) and many had spacious courtyards. Some of the bigger houses even had multiple stories (levels) and paved floors. What is noteworthy is that almost every house had its own wells, drains and bathrooms. Each house was connected directly to an excellent underground sewer system that ran throughout the city. The inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization cities enjoyed to a degree unknown in the ancient world not only sanitary conveniences, but also a highly developed municipal life. What is absolutely astounding is that these cities existed close to five thousand years ago. Granaries

A special feature of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization was the large granary that existed. As a structure it is particularly impressive, running 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and 15 feet high. This gave the granary an astounding 168,750 cubic feet of space. Thegranary was divided into 27 compartment in three rows. The granary was well ventilated and it was possible to fill grain in from outside. The large size of the granary probably indicates a highly developed agricultural civilization.

Great Bath

The city of Mohenjo-Daro possessed an amazing structure known as the Great Bath. The entire structure is about 179 feet long and 107 feet wide. The complex has a large quadrangle in the center with galleries and rooms on all sides. In the center of this quadrangle there is a large swimming enclosure that is 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. The entire complex is connected to an elaborate water supply and sewer system. The Great Bath was probably used for religious or ritualistic purposes. The people of the Indus Valley Civilization had achieved some spectacular standards when it came to building their cities. Each city was carefully planned and at the peak of the civilization housed almost 40,000 people. A typical city would be divided into two sections, each fortified separately. One section, known as the acropolis, was located on an artificially raised mound while the other level was on level ground.

The acropolis contained the important buildings of the city, like the assembly halls, religious structures, granaries and in the case of Mohenjo-Daro the famous Great Bath. The lower section of the city was where the housing for the inhabitants was located. It was here where some truly amazing features have been discovered. The city was well connected with broad roads about 30 meters long which met at right angles. The houses were located in the rectangular squares thus formed.

Houses were built with standardized baked bricks (which had a ratio of length to width to thickness at 4:2:1) and many had spacious courtyards. Some of the bigger houses even had multiple stories (levels) and paved floors. What is noteworthy is that almost every house had its own wells, drains and bathrooms. Each house was connected directly to an excellent underground sewer system that ran throughout the city. The inhabitants of Indus Valley Civilization cities enjoyed to a degree unknown in the ancient world not only sanitary conveniences, but also a highly developed municipal life. What is absolutely astounding is that these cities existed close to five thousand years ago.

Granaries

A special feature of the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization was the large granary that existed. As a structure it is particularly impressive, running 150 feet long, 75 feet wide and 15 feet high. This gave the granary an astounding 168,750 cubic feet of space. The granary was divided into 27 compartment in three rows. The granary was well ventilated and it was possible to fill grain in from outside. The large size of the granary probably indicates a highly developed agricultural civilization.

Great Bath

The city of Mohenjo-Daro possessed an amazing structure known as the Great Bath. The entire structure is about 179 feet long and 107 feet wide. The complex has a large quadrangle in the center with galleries and rooms on all sides. In the center of this quadrangle there is a large swimming enclosure that is 39 feet long, 23 feet wide and 8 feet deep. The entire complex is connected to an elaborate water supply and sewer system. The Great Bath was probably used for religious or ritualistic purposes.

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