Since early historic, humans obsessed with escaping gravity’s unblinking gaze to somehow slip aloft sharing a universal desire for the freedom of flight even for a fleeting moment. This can be seen in anyways inspiring to poetic about the dream of flight. Looking to nature design, human for years attempted to replicate the flight of the birds and insects in many a bid to break free of his earthly bond. Human’s dream of launched himself skyward to advance design, flapping wing crafts, known generally as ornithopters, have held a confine placed to achieved the freedom of fleeting aloft.
In the past few decades, aircraft that capitalize on the flight mechanism of bird enjoyed a renaissance of sorts. From the Human-powered ornithopter flight to Nano-scale unmanned vehicles incorporated with flapping wing design has become an industrial scientific domain. This paper Includes the summarize literature for the several journals that have been published in the past few decades in the field of Ornithopter.
Muhammad Ridhawanbin Jumat design, built, and fly the University of Glasgow Singapore flapping wing Micro Aerial Vehicles using fabrication methods such as the laser cutting and prototyping. Using Laser cutting his first prototype made from the acrylic and the Ripstop. His second and third prototype was designed and fabricated using a 3D laser cutting technique. The flapping wing has multiple advantages compared to other types of MAVs as they can hover without making much noise. Flapping MAVs are resemblance either a bird or an insect. MAV can provide real-time intelligence during missions.
They create a CAD design using SolidWorks of the dual gear crank and horizontal tail design. With one of a feature of the SolidWorks, they measured the total weight of the MAVs. Later on, for weight reduction, they chose a simple tilting tail. When they tested the MAVs, they find that increasing the RPM of the motor pitches the MAVs upward and decreasing on downwards. However, decreasing rpm too much would make the MAVs stall on landing. Despite the limitation of its melting points and breaking strength, Rapid Prototyping Machine or the 3D printing is better for fabrication method than other methods.
Jared Grauer In several Sector of the Society, as the demands of the Miniature unmanned aircraft increase, flapping wing aircraft becomes one of the main domain, his work presented a complete nonlinear multibody model of the ornithopter flight dynamics guide by the flight test and system identification result and cast into a canonical form for nonlinear control. Obtaining an accurate model of flight dynamics for autopilot and autonomous operation is a challenging task. Jared and James paper present the development of a relatively low dimensional state of space model describing the ornithopter flight dynamics.
Mohd Firdaus Bin Abas Paper reviewed the kinematics, membranes, and flapping mechanisms ranges from small birds to big insects, which reside within the transition and the Low Reynold’s number and the possibility of the applying piezoelectric transmission to produce NAV flapping wing motion and was mounted on the MAV instead of the motorized flapping wing transmission. They conducted a review of the flapping wing MAVs on both the flapping wing insects and ornithopter, and systematically summarize the contribution of the ornithopter and insect type flapping wing kinematics and membranes wing structures. In his paper, they recommended to the researcher on the development of MAV to consider adopting piezoelectric transmission system instead of the motorized transmission system as it would reduce the weight of the MAV significantly giving more space allowing to installed high definition cameras and sensors.
Richard J. Bomphrey work is a synthesis of the mechanics, aerodynamics and visually mediated control of the dragonfly and damselfly flight with the addition of the new experimental and computation data’s in several key areas. Using extensive suite of the equipment’s and the methodologies including specialize wind tunnel, two free flight arenas, high speed stereo-photogrammetry, a customized motion capture system and PIV Apparatus, they have identified that the structural corrugations do not significantly impact the aerodynamic impact of the dragonfly wings and natural corrugation can help to smooth stall characteristics at high angles of attacks.
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