Fighting Procrastination Research


Tupou Tertiary Institute.

Management & Research Question.

Too much to do; not enough time to do it. Most people have too much to do and not enough time in which to do it. The main reason why they have too much to do, is that they are doing too many things. They are doing too many things that do not relate to the achievement of the goal and they are doing too many things that are distractions from their main purpose.

Therefore, they don’t have enough time to do things that DO relate to the achievement of their major purpose.

Goal Focus concern with keep goal clean and clear in your mind and do only those things that relate to your goal. You never have time to do it all. So, don’t even try. Do ONLY those things that aid you in the pursuit of your purpose. Skip the trash.


  • Identify the biggest time stealers?
  • Identifying and managing peak physiological performance time?

Literature Search & Critique.

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In a study conducted by Alexander H?fner, Armin Stock, and Verena Oberst twenty-three undergraduate students were placed into a time management training program. The outcome of this experiment suggests that acquiring time management skills can help reduce the daily stressors that many students struggle with. The journal continues to pull statistical data from tests and activities the students are given after enduring the training. Results were then concluded and showed that time management training interventions are beneficial when it comes to relieving stress and helping students manage daily activities.

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H?fner, Stock, and Oberst draw the audience in by giving some background information on how academic stress affects students. With the use of factual support this shows that the authors conducted thorough research to back up their claims. The use of statistical data is also beneficial because anyone reading this academic journal will be able to actually see the results and complications of the experiment. The strongest part of this study explains what can cause stress for students and methods that can help them avoid and relieve academic stress. With this knowledge being presented the authors are giving additional information that is providing proof on why time management skills are important in a learning environment. CITATION Ale14 l 3081 (Alexander Hafner, et. al, 2014)In this study CITATION Ran00 l 3081 (Ranjita Misra, 2000), over two hundred university students were split up by gender and observed based on how they handle stress and anxiety. The goal of the study was to show how time management techniques used in conjunction with leisure activities can help students effectively manage their stress. Overall, the results of this experiment showed that time management skills have a greater effect on academic stress compared to leisure activities. This study also provided information on why it is important for students to attend any type of seminar that focuses on time management techniques in order to experience academic success.

It offers experimental data as well as thorough results that focus on other time management techniques that reduce daily stressors. The most important points focus on actual methods that can be used to reduce academic stress. These particular points will be beneficial because they actually go into depth on techniques that are proven to help students who battle with the pressures of school. Another strong point within this study is the fact that the author backs up all their claims with the data from the observations and test that were conducted. Additional information is also mentioned in the journal which allows you to review any other important findings.

This article CITATION Fer15 l 3081 (Ferris Education, 2015) discusses multiple issues concerning procrastination. It talks about the most common causes of procrastination. It states that people should not over extend themselves which has to do with making sure you have enough to do everything you set out to do in a reasonable amount of time. If the task is not personally relevant to your own personal goals or needs, then your motivation to get it done will be very low or perhaps nonexistent. Making faulty assumptions is when we do not know how much time a task may take in completing especially if you come across difficulties within that task. Next, it goes into the strategies for time management. It states that you should always study or go to a place where you know you will more productive and there no distractions. I feel that this resource is very important and helpful in what I need to present to the high school students. The information here is spot on and can be useful for someone who may believe that they are falling into the habits of procrastination. They can see what causes procrastination and may be able to identify what it the cause of their own procrastination. There are strategies that are listed for them to be able to put into use to help them avoid procrastination.

This article CITATION Don95 l 3081 (Donnely, 1995) is about how procrastination is tied to self-esteem. It talks about how putting things off is one of the most human of foibles. It is something everyone does to one at one point at a time in their life. It is believed that there is a difference between comfortable procrastination and problem procrastination. It states that some procrastination can be useful. You just can’t do everything so something has to be priorities. Problem procrastination is self-sabotaging and self-defeating. The fact, you are putting down the most important tasks instead of putting off your least important. It states that problem procrastinators can be very busy doing everything but the task at hand and have low motivational powers; they simply can’t mobilize themselves. It goes on to say that perfectionism plays a part in a procrastinator’s life. They take forever researching a topic which leaves them with less and less time to complete their task. The article states that procrastinators should come to terms with their fears and be more realistic with they need to accomplish.

Quantitative & Qualitative Methods1

Data mining is the extraction of inherent unknown and potential useful information from data. Data mining helps organizations solve complex problems, which does not really lead to breakthroughs, but the thing is that it can boost the organizations performance and its competitive position with the activities unsupervised and supervised technique of generalizing known structure to new data (classification), as to discovering groups in similar data (clustering), an attempts to find a function that models the data with the least error (regression), searching for relationships between variables (association rule learning), given input data with a value of continuous variable, and records are classified regardless to some predicted future value or behavior (estimation). For data miners, they should combine with business people to make sure that data mining projects have meaningful business success which build the momentum and support for data mining.

Survey is a well-organized activity which we gather information directly from people. A survey, in contrary to research, is a data collection method which the researcher carries out a survey research. With quantitative data collection method, survey enables the researchers to get information from a very large sample of population. Surveys are not so good at extracting why people think or act as they do, but it can tell us how many people behave in a sort of way or how many are dis-satisfied with their treatment, but they may be limited in terms of the information they can provide. The method to collect survey data is through face-to-face interview, online interviews (telephone), and questionnaires. This method of data collection, we extract information directly from people and for selecting the suitable or appropriate method depends on respondents’ potentials, literacy level, and motivation in terms of the subject matter. Not like other method of data collection, their main aim of conducting a research is to draw reliable and valid data in a structured form that will be easier to analyzed and report.

Quantitative Rating Scale is defined as a closed-ended survey question use to represent respondents feedback in a comparative form for specific features/products/services. It is one of the most established question types for online and offline surveys where respondents are expected to rate an attribute or feature. Rating scale is a variant of the popular multiple choice question widely used to gather information which provide relevant information about a particular topic. Researchers use this in research when they intend to associate qualitative measure of aspects of a product or feature. Generally, this scale is used to evaluate performance of a service or a product including customers service, employee skills, and processes followed for a particular goal etc. For rating scale questions can be compared to a checkbox question but rating scale provides more information than merely Yes or No.

Questionnaires are a useful method on conducting a survey, mainly quicker if the sample is large or widely dispersed in comparison to personal interview. In regardless of sample size, it takes time for first wave of questionnaires to be returned especially if respondents are widely dispersed but that’s no problem, what important is the design and layout of the questionnaires. Questionnaires can be either devised by the researcher or you design your own for self-completion, as the rules governing the format and layout for those designing a questionnaire as other methods are designed to be administered by interviewer. There are obvious advantages of using such questionnaires, for the fact that many of these questions are well validated and tested for reliability, there may be some normative data available for you as a model so you could compare your results with. For example, if you decide to carry out a survey of client satisfaction as for those hardly drop by at the Centre, then the outcomes will be biased towards the views of the most frequent attenders and thus those people with the most problems.

Focus Groups is also one of the commonly used qualitative methods in data collection. This commonly use method usually contains a limited number of respondents about 6-10 from within a target market. Focus groups main aim is to find answers to the why, what, and how questions as an open-ended question. An advantage of focus group is that you do not necessarily need to interact with group in person but you could have sent online survey on numerous devices and collect responses at a click of a button. This method can be expensive as compared to other qualitative research methods and very useful to explain complex processes and as well to market research on a new product and testing new concepts.

Qualitative rating scale is defined as an open-ended to questions to describe individuals experience and beliefs. Rating scale is a variant of descriptive data which is used in depth interviews, focus groups, and participant on observation regarding of a specific topic which researchers use rating scale method to associate qualitative measure with the various aspects of a product or feature. In general, this scale evaluates the employee skills, customer service, and processes for a particular goal etc. in degree of flexibility, participants’ response affect how and which questions researchers will ask next. For example, customer experience, collecting information concerning of customers’ preference and experience helps the organization gather real-time details about a certain product or service purchasing experience as to semantic differential scale too/as well.

Coding is the process of driving codes from the observed data. In qualitative research the data is either obtained from observations, interviews or via questionnaires. The purpose of data coding is to bring out the principles that respondents have provided which data coder pulls out preliminary codes from the observed data, the preliminary codes are further filtered and refined to obtain more accurate precise and concise codes. Later, in the evaluation of data, researchers allocate the percentage of values and other numerical quantities to these codes to draw implications to rule for coding as categories should be mutually exclusive and independent. Remember that the main purpose of data coding is not just to disregard unnecessary data but also summarized the data to be more meaningful. Like coding open-ended response, a code building is based on thoughts and not just words. For example, code number with need air conditioning, nice/beautiful, good/very-good/excellent.

Primary & Secondary Data.

Primary data is a unique of original data which researchers collected data directly from sources as this points out to observations, questionnaires, survey, case studies in according to one’s requirements for a specific purpose. One example is the ethnographic research On the Run by Alice Goffman. Secondary data is data that has been collected by another researcher or organization for other purposes. This is easily accessible but are not pure data as they undergone numerous of statistical treatments. About sources of secondary data, they are government publications, as to websites, and books, journals, articles etc. one of the examples is the World Values of Survey and US General Social Survey as they demonstrate collection surveys, by your means covering a wide range of topics that numerous social science researchers are interested in.

Research Design.

In most research situation, three parties are tangled, the researcher, the sponsoring clients (User), and the respondent (Subject). The interaction between these parties identifies a series of ethical questions. About the rights and obligations of the researcher: this concern about the purpose of the research, the objectivity, dissemination of faulty conclusions, misrepresentation of research, competing research proposal, and protecting the right of both subjects and clients confidentiality. The rights and obligations of the sponsoring client: this concerns about ethics between buyer and seller, their privacy, commitment to research, relationship with interested parties, and the advocacy of research. The respondent: this concerns about the obligation to be truthful, deception, in-privacy, and its rights.

Sampling & Sampling Design.

A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. This refers to the technique or procedures adopted by researchers in selecting items for a sample. Sample design may as well lay down the number of items to be included in a sample i.e., the size of the sample. This is determined before data are collected. There are numerous sample designs from which a researcher can pick. Some sample designs are relatively easier and precise to apply than others as researchers must select and prepare a sample design that is reliable and appropriate for the research study.

Sampling validity ensures the area of measures within a research area is vast. No measure is able to cover all items and elements within a phenomenon, therefore, the important elements and items are selected using a specific pattern of sampling method depending on aims and objectives of the study.

Representative samples are one type of sampling method to subset a population that seeks to accurately reflect the characteristics of a larger entity. This method uses stratified random sampling to help identify its components. Typically, focused on demographic categories.

Reliability alone is not enough, measures need to be reliable, as well as, valid in terms of sampling.



  • Alexander Hafner, et. al. (2014). Decreasing students’ stress through time intervention study. European Journal of Psychology of Education.
  • Donnely, K. (1995, January 23). Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from Procrastination Tied to Self-esteem: Ferris Education. (2015, April 5th). Retrieved from Procrastination and Time Mnagement- Educational Counseling & Disabilities Services:
  • Ranjita Misra, M. M. (2000). College students’ academic stress and its relation to their anxiety, time mangement, and leizure satisfaction. American Journal of Health Studies, 41-51.

Cite this page

Fighting Procrastination Research. (2021, May 26). Retrieved from

Fighting Procrastination Research

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