Emotions are an integral part of our personality. Most of the affairs of everyday life are tinged with feeling and emotions. Joy’s sorrow, excitement and disappointment, love and fear, attraction and repulsion, hope and dismay all these and many more are feelings we often experience in the course of a day. There are so many definitions, the emotion have.
In attempt to arrive at a comprehensive definition of emotion Kleinginna and Kleinginna, (1981) tried to included different aspects like (1) say something about the way we feel when we are emotional; (2) mention the physiological, or bodily, basis, of emotional feelings; (3) include the effects of emotion on perception, thinking and behavior, (4) point out the deriving, or motivational, properties of certain emotions such as fear and anger; and (5) refer to the ways in which emotions are expressed in language, facial expressions and gestures.
Our emotions have a great impact on others when we express them in ways that can be perceived by others. When we perceive the emotional responses of other people, we respond in appropriate ways, perhaps with an emotional expression in others to form our ideas of their personality. For example, if we perceive that our boss often expresses hostility toward subordinates but fawns upon his boss. We know something about his personality and can plan our actions accordingly. We perceive emotions in others from many sources.
The voice is one channel of emotional expression. Screams denote fear or excitement, groans denote pain or unhappiness, sobs denote sorrow and laughter denotes enjoyment. While what is said and the way in which it is said are major factors in the perception of emotion, movements of the body are also used as cues in interpreting other people’s emotions. Each and every culture may or may not have similar set of perceptual cues to use in evaluating the emotional state behind the expressions. People learn to express their emotions in different ways.
So unless we known a person’s idiosyncrasies, it may be difficult for us to know exactly what emotions that person is experiencing. Nowadays organizations are emphasizing on to understand the emotional impact on their employees. An emotion that is acceptable at one place may or may not be acceptable at another place. An emotion that is acceptable in the family or party may not be acceptable in the workplace. Similarly, what’s appropriate in one country is often inappropriate in another. This shows that there are number of external factors which plays definitive role in shaping and displaying emotions at various places and time.
During the discussion of the Personality And Emotion Stephen Robbins and Judge (2006) explains that a person’s, who is employee also, behavior is also perceived and evaluated according to the place, timing, and status and according to the social and cultural aspects. Even every organization has its own culture and set of norms for behavior in general and emotions in particular. He goes on to analyze that even organization’s culture, its services, area of operations, native culture, and national culture, all plays significant role in personnel display of emotions.
A single set of emotion cannot be appropriate in all situations, places and cultures. Even from high-status and low-status members in organizations have different set of emotional expressions. But it has been expected from the organizations and its employees to behave rationally and emotion free. Robbins clearly enumerated that the cultural norms in one country or one organization cannot be applied to any other. Expression of intense emotions weather negative or positive typically unacceptable at organizational level and it has been perceived that showing of intense emotions will undermine the routine tasks.
It has been clearly understandable that showing of intense impatience, anxiety, fear or happiness, typically not acceptable at the organizational level. In most part of the world, organizations are supposed to be more rational then emotional. In deciding the emotional displays, culture norms of the region or geographical, social, economical status of the person and organizational norms plays a crucial role. Even the organizations, which have worldwide presence, face the problematic situation in different countries and in different cultures with the same set of emotional behavior.
Robbins established with various examples of organizations and cultures that cultural factors have significant influence on personnel emotional behavior in particular. Finally he established by referring one study that there tends to be high agreement on what emotions mean within cultures but not between. Even some cultures lack the words, which are representing basic emotions. So it has been quite obvious that cultures play significant role in framing organizational behaviours and expression of emotions. Some more studies agreed to these views such as Savery et al. 1996) suggest that national culture is a strong influence on the management performance of the world’s nations.
They note that the emphasis in the mainly English speaking countries (Britain, Australia and the United States) is on short-term objectives, while managers in Japan and Germany are rewarded for their long-term orientation. Studies such as Hofstede’s and others into cross cultural influences led them to conclude that managerial values, attitudes and decision making are related more to national culture than economic development or to the technological environment (Hofstede 1980, p. 0).
Globalization of business implies that firms have created international, multinational or global companies (Hamel et al 1989). As a result, multinational companies (MNCs) now have the chance to stay competitive. However, the resultant workforces are diverse in interests, backgrounds, training, and nationalities (De la Torre, 1998). Cultures are at the base of people’s behaviors (Brewster and Hegewisch, 1994; Schuler et al. , 1993). It is argued (Phillips, 1990) that employees in an organization live within a larger complex society.
Therefore, while members of a MNC may develop shared sets of assumptions within the organization setting that are special to that organization and which become that organization’s culture, they also bring with them the various sets of assumptions they acquire outside of the organization in the form of national cultures. This theory is supported by Sondergaard (1994) who argues that national cultures is the most widely cited feature of countries that creates pressures for decentralization in MNCs to operate effectively in a particular country. In Muslim Culture, smiling of women conveys different meaning than in any other culture.
Emotions in the work environment play a major role for the individuals. There may be need on several occasions to deal with work related problems controlling their emotions. If emotions positive or negative are expressed more than required by senior personnel or managers then situation may turn out to be negative. For fresher or junior level cadres it is absolutely a must to control their emotions to a large extent and focus on getting positive results in their jobs even under adverse circumstances which most of the times may be passing phases some emotional display are acceptable in one culture may be totally unacceptable in another culture.
Even in every culture interpretations of emotion takes place differently. When the culture differences in understanding emotions are small, they can still have important real world consequences. If cross-cultural interactions are slightly less smooth than same culture interactions, then misunderstandings can accumulate over time and make interpersonal relationship less satisfying. To maintain interpersonal relationship sensitivity and boundaries bounded emotionality has to be pursued in the organizations.
Finally, when we construct the organizational culture, we generally do not count emotional aspects but we could observe that through our interactions with others in organization we learn how to manage and interpret the emotions we experience. That is, relationships are central to both culture and emotions. In general people prefer those organizations where the cultural norms and values for relating enable a good enough fulfillment of our relational needs. So in the present circumstances cultural impact and influences on emotions and inclusion in the organizations plays a crucial role in the development of the organizations.
But In the present era of information revolution most of the organizations had linked to the world and employees’ behavior has been influenced by not the cultures only but some other factors. Professional organizations are trying to formulate standard set of behavior for their employees working worldwide to minimize cultural impact. Now most of the successful organizations are trying to universalize the employees’ emotional behavior worldwide and trying to minimize the cultural differences by providing more and more cross-cultural training to their employees.