1854 Broad Street Cholera Outbreak

Journal Entry 1:

Cholera is a disease that was widespread in the London cities during 1852. They had “night soil” men which took their waste, which is waste recycling. Often there was flowing waste which had affected the city with a horrible stench. It was an unknown vector wreaking havoc upon the people.

Not only was the waste part of the stench industrial fuels contributed. However, bacteria was decomposing at this organic matter constantly. The organic matter is then turned into deadly pockets of methane which produces millions of microorganisms that recycle the waste and into microbial biomass.

The population was high most times they had to live in small quarters, but this was bad for the whole community. They were generating more waste with the amount of people. This disease is biofilm, which is a ressiant layer that surrounds the organism and coats different surfaces.

Since they have not yet discovered cholera they tossed stool in front of their house and neighborhoods.

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Since the population was contributing to the bacteria they had not lived as extremophiles. They had an easy environment to live in since no one had a care where they placed their waste.

You can then see this affect because soon bodies started to show up and no one understood why. This relates to the standard because it explains the pattern of structure and function of the clades.

Journal Entry 2:

This disease is not a gram-positive bacteria. It’s gram-negative bacteria which means that where it has a thin layer of this particular substance, peptidoglycan.

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In the second chapter you begin seeing the symptoms of cholera. It was mistaken as food poisoning at one point.

In the book they describe the bacterium itself. The organism is from a clade, which comes from an assortment of other bacteria. This can relate to the standard because the ancestors of the bacteria because it comes from other bacteria.

When looking at the bacteria you would have to look with a microscope. It’s a curved rod with a rotating tail that is called the flagellum. This organism isn’t cyanobacteria because usually the organism is able to produce photosynthesis.

Cholera isn’t a eukaryote, but a prokaryote. In the book it does state that it takes million to be able to infect a person, but it has gotten to that point with the people living in London. Also, they eventually they will produce an antibiotic resistance as the bacteria evolve.

Journal Entry 3:

The organism isn’t a virus but can be treated with an antibiotic drug. As modern day medicine advanced more advertisements were created and brought to the world. A possible reason why some antibiotics don’t work is because cholera is able to genetically transfer itself to other organism.

It doesn’t have a set way to transfer since the bacteria is transferred randomly. The bacteria can easily transfer because they come in multiples. In the text it says that one cup of water can hold 200 million V. cholerae. Simply ingesting the organism can’t make you sick because it needs to find its way to the intestine.

This bacteria then attacks with two prongs and receive help from a protein called TCP. It helps the bacteria reproduce quickly and spread. They only know how to transfer and reproduce like archaea. The bacteria then release toxins while attacking the intestines.

Since the bacteria is affecting the intestines the water balance is being thrown off. According to the book, in extreme cases, you are able to lose up to thirty percent of body weight. It’s similar to a vector since it goes from the water and into your system causing a lot of medical problems.

Journal Entry 4:

Since no one knew the disease they did not know how to treat it. Most people have given victims of Cholera water and electrolytes. It seemed like this bacteria had an antibiotic resistance. When they had drank assembly clean water they had felt better as a result and have survived the disease.

Since there was such a positive effect they had created a research group to discover a cure or even a vaccine. Since it’s a bacteria it mostly affecting the different cells of eukaryotic cells or protist. This is because they need and organism to affect unlike archaeas.

Unknown to their knowledge they thought giving laxatives to combat the disease. This unfortunately did not help anyone. Some doctors were dehydrating the victims this could refer to hypertonic situations. They constantly dehydrate them they need to have water in their systems.

The water they were consuming before had been contaminated by their own feces and they don’t even realize. Some side effects were that the blood usually came out very thick. This was due to of course dehydration.

Journal Entry 5:

Now medical detectives were constantly finding clues to figure out ways to stop the disease. This has affected so many people and killed many in their population.

This bacteria was like virion, constantly trying to find a host to infect. It didn’t have to work as hard to find some. Most discovered that the victims skin had become blue and taut. The bacteria was not latency. It was already very well known within the city limits.

Some bacteria have endospores but not cholera. Before it was stated that cholera does not produce photosynthesis but it requires oxygen for their growth. They need their growth since they need to be in larger numbers and the bacterium can replication with the help of plasmid.

It’s only a single small flagella so that’s why it needs millions to go to the intestines to infect the body. The are single small organisms that can easily replicate within the human body. This bacteria spread like wildfire in 1852. They had plumping but it was not as advanced; to them it was not effective.

Journal Entry 6:

As they try to solve the mystery of cholera, the cholera is evolving around the new characteristics. They don’t go through the process of photosynthesis since they don’t produce oxygen but consume it. This could also be how they evolved around the environment.

However, the people in the city thought the new sewers that were built was the reason. They were only half right because of the water that were contained in the sewers. The microbes were infesting all their water systems, and the only thing that could them them was water.

Soon enough a scientist of the name Snow had his mind set on discovering how to prevent this disease. He had thought that ether was likely the problem because of the dosage. This was one way they thought that this was cured. They had to discover are more effective way to deliver the miracle gas to the patients.

His productivity was through the roof. He asks Daniel Ferguson to make an inhaler which would control the dosage. He forced closely in the embryonic field to gain more knowledge on the disease.

Journal Entry 7:

His experiments worked closely with the mastery of ether and chloroform. Instead of medicine or antibiotics they had wrongfully thought that chloroform was a form of a cure.

The city was consumed with the disease and there have been different discoveries but still nothing has helped yet. So many theories arose about the disease and rumor spread. This disease was contagious and so they had to discuss the sanitation of the city. It was weirdly place because occasionally the disease skipped over completely.

Another remedy they thought would help with cholera was alcohol, this was because of the assumed antibacterial properties. They were just finding a way to help since it was a bad thing to happen. They said it was worse than dying of cirrhosis, degeneration of cells, than of dysentery. Which is an infection of the disease in the intestine. However, if they were to use alcohol they would need to boast their enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenases.

Journal Entry 8:

Humans are able to boost this enzyme by having a trait on a set of genes on the fourth chromosome. Some people weren’t able to develop gene so some passed due to over ingestion of alcohol. Later one the gene developed and passed down from generation to generation. To make the alcohol they used fermentation strategies. They had to fermenting organisms. They are made from unicellular fungus.

They had to convert sugars and carbohydrates into ATP. ATP is the energy currency of all living organisms. They use the energy to then break down molecules and then discharge two gases that is also release with cholera. These gases are carbon dioxide and ethanol. They drank it to reduce the death but then later on tea and coffee offered another comparable protection against the disease.

Journal Entry 9:

Air was a factor of cholera. It was somehow transmitted in the atmosphere. It was a mystery to them why the disease was airborne, but discovered that the brain had evolved and triggered a disgust response. Eating was also a risk this is because if they had begun the decomposition process or was containtamed it cause many problems. The small microbial life-forms were a part of the decomposition process. This then release more organic compounds into the air.

Bacteria was recycling this energy but this bacteria is different from cholera. Certain gases could kill you but bacterial decomposition did not release enough to make it toxic. Slowly researchers were discovering the more complexity of the disease. So when researching the existence of bacterial microcosmos was a fansty to them.

Since the disease was widespread they began making maps to pinpoint areas of the disease. Snow head created the idea and the answer of ether and chloroform, which formed and anesthetic, was part of the answer.

Journal Entry 10:

Snow then theorized that gases would disperse. Even if a doctor were to deliver the anesthetic they could feel the affects a bit away. Henry Whitehead have not created anymore theories but that did not stop him from knocking down other ideas.

They had observed that organs were failing which means the bacteria was affect the body greatly. He knew like most things could not cure like antibiotics. He then constantly debunking ideas.

Since the bacteria was taking out so many people it had a hard time finding people to infect. They could not reproduce if there was not a host to provide proteins. They could have asexual reproduction but still requires a host. When cholera lived in the wells they eventually ran out of food.

These food could be considered protist like plankton. Along with the bacteria but once the plankton ran out the bacteria had starved to death. Then had reproduce because they were in need because they were dying. They were latency in the well possibly reproduce somehow.

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1854 Broad Street Cholera Outbreak. (2019, Dec 04). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/1854-broad-street-cholera-outbreak-essay

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