10 In various countries we observe governments aiming to produce

10.

In various countries we observe governments aiming to produce mixed income areas to reduce or prevent spatial segregation. This almost always implies a redifferentiation, or restructuring of the housing stock of low-income areas. This strategy has its advantages and disadvantages. Redifferentiation and restructuring are based on the idea that solutions to the problems of spatial segregation and concentration can be found in the housing stock. This is also the case in the Netherlands. Since 1997, the Dutch Government has advocated a housing policy promoting a restructuring of urban neighbourhoods by building more expensive dwellings in traditionally low-income areas in order to influence the income mix in these neighbourhoods, thereby implying that this is a positive and feasible development.

This paper focused on the goals of the undivided cities formulated by the Dutch Government and the arguments concerning the relation between segregation and restructuring of the urban housing stock. The paper also examined the income mix and income segregation in Dutch urban areas itself.

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11.

There is currently a growing interest in the spatial causes of poverty, particularly its persistence. This paper presents methodological innovations that have been developed for investigating the relationship between physical segregation and economic marginalization in the urban environment. Using GIS to layer historical poverty data, contemporary deprivation indexes and space syntax measures of spatial segregation, a multivariate system has been created to enable the understanding of the spatial process involved in the creation and stagnation of poverty areas as well as to analyse the street segment scale of configuration.

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This paper has reported on the initial findings of a project investigating the relationship between spatial segregation and poverty. It has shown that space can be considered as a factor in the geography of poverty.

12.

Before, however, developing this argument it is necessary to delineate its context. We will focus on its conceptual dimension and we will proceed in several steps. · The first one is to position the concept of ‘social exclusion’; · The second one is to discuss ‘social inclusion’ in its relation to ‘social exclusion’; · Next, we argue that social cohesion and social inclusion refer to different phenomena. ·A first attempt to describe the concept of social cohesion will follow. · The last step then is to take a look at our seemingly contradictory statement that social cohesion necessarily implies social exclusion.

13.

This book examines the massive urbanization of the world’s population. All around the world “Megacities” are becoming scenes of vast deprivation, especially in the global south. In such gigantic and dense social environments, complex sets of relationships link poverty and exclusion to urban politics, power relations and public policy. In these cities, local urban politics and policy-making is the strategic prey of violent actors. The urban poor are confronted with the challenge of dealing with their inevitable encounters with violence. Megacities examines recent world-wide trends in poverty and social exclusion, urban violence and politics, and links these to the challenges faced by policy-makers and practitioners in “megacities” across the globe.

14.

Urban Segregation and the Welfare State examines ethnic and socio-economic segregation patterns, social polarisation, and social exclusion in major cities in the Western world. Contributors from across North America and Europe provide in-depth analysis of particular cities, ranging from Johannesburg, Chicago and Toronto to Amsterdam, Stockholm and Belfast. The authors highlight the social problems in and of cities, indicating differences between nation-states in terms of economic restructuring, migration, welfare state regimes and “ethnic history”.

15.

The Color of Law offers ” introduce the most forceful argument published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation” (William Julius Wilson). Exploding the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces, Rothstein describes how the American government systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning; public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities; subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs; tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation; and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods. The final chapter of this book also offers solutins to sgregation and inequality in the united states.

16.

In recent years, the young, educated, and affluent have surged back into cities, reversing decades of suburban flight and urban decline. And yet all is not well, Richard Florida argues in The New Urban Crisis. Florida, one of the first scholars to anticipate this back-to-the-city movement in his groundbreaking The Rise of the Creative Class, demonstrates how the same forces that power the growth of the world’s superstar cities also generate their vexing challenges: gentrification, unaffordability, segregation, and inequality. Meanwhile, many more cities still stagnate, and middle-class neighborhoods everywhere are disappearing. Our winner-take-all cities are just one manifestation of a profound crisis in today’s urbanized knowledge economy. A bracingly original work of research and analysis, The New Urban Crisis offers a compelling diagnosis of our economic ills and a bold prescription for more inclusive cities capable of ensuring growth and prosperity for all.

17.

When we think of segregation, what often comes to mind is apartheid South Africa, or the American South in the age of Jim Crow two societies fundamentally premised on the concept of the separation of the races. But as Carl H. Nightingale shows us in this magisterial history, segregation is everywhere, deforming cities and societies worldwide. Starting with segregation’s ancient roots, and what the archaeological evidence reveals about humanity’s long-standing use of urban divisions to reinforce political and economic inequality, Nightingale then moves to the world of European colonialism. It was there, he shows, segregation based on color and eventually on race. As we follow Nightingale’s story around the globe, we see that division replicated from Hong Kong to Nairobi, Baltimore to San Francisco, and more. The turn of the twentieth century saw the most aggressive segregation movements yet, as white communities almost everywhere set to rearranging whole cities along racial lines. Nightingale focuses closely on two striking examples: Johannesburg, with its state-sponsored separation, and Chicago, in which the goal of segregation was advanced by the more subtle methods of real estate markets and housing policy. For the first time ever, the majority of humans live in cities, and nearly all those cities bear the scars of segregation. This unprecedented, ambitious history lays bare our troubled past, and sets us on the path to imagining the better, more equal cities of the future.

18.

This book brings together key insights from urban studies and network studies in order to understand whether and how spatial segregation matters for personal networks and inequality. By approaching these questions through different urban sociological perspectives, the book engages with current debates on poverty concentration as well as ethnic diversity, gentrification and social capital. The study is based on detailed quantitative and qualitative data on the personal networks of people living in three differently composed neighbourhoods in Rotterdam, the second largest city in the Netherlands.

19.

This book provides tools for analyzing how the Open City is made and unmade. Urban History viewed in this book teaches us that the built environment is not the product of invisible, uncontrollable market forces, but of human-made tools that could have been used differently (or not at all). The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion is an encyclopedia of the human-made tools used by architects, planners, policy-makers, developers, real estate brokers, activists, and other urban actors in the United States to restrict or increase access to the spaces of our cities and suburbs. The inventories these tools–or what we call weapons–examines how they have been used, and speculates about how they might be deployed (or retired) to make more open cities in which more people feel welcome in more spaces.

The Arsenal of Exclusion & Inclusion offers a wide-ranging view of the policies, institutions, and social practices that shape our cities. It can be read as a historical account of the making of the modern American city, a toolbox of best practices for creating better, more just spaces, or as an introduction to the process of city-making.

20.

Neighbourhoods of Poverty is concerned with the spatial dimension of urban social exclusion and integration. It draws on research from twenty-two neighbourhoods in eleven European cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Brussels, Antwerp, London, Birmingham, Berlin, Hamburg, Milan, Naples and Paris and addresses two questions: – How do different neighbourhoods have an impact upon the opportunities and perspectives of poor individuals and households? – Are these neighbourhood impacts conditioned by national and welfare state contexts, by the wider metropolitan structures and by specific neighbourhood characteristics? Various aspects of poverty, social exclusion and integration are brought together and provide a new assessment of the place of neighbourhood within these wider debates.

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