The principles of infection prevention and control
The principles of infection prevention and control
1. ‘It is our responsibility as employees to take precautionary measures to prevent and control the spread of infection in the workplace; this involves working safely to protect myself, other staff, visitors and individuals from infections. Some of the legislation and regulations that relate to the control and prevention of infection include the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA), the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) and the Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR). It is important as employees that we are aware of these so that we can work safely; at work we have information provided in the health and safety file and COSHH file. As employees we must ensure we attend all necessary trainings that our employers provide regarding infection control and prevention.
If an employee comes across a hazard such as bodily fluids spilt in an area or a staff member not wearing gloves you must report it immediately to a senior staff member and not ignore it as this may cause infection to spread. In the workplace employees need to put these safe ways of working into practice; for example by effective hand washing, not coming into work when you’re not feeling well as you will be putting others at risk, by not wearing jewellery when cooking or supporting service users in other activities as jewellery carries many pathogens, by always wearing protective clothing; as a support worker wearing an apron and gloves for procedures will reduce the spread of infection by preventing infection passing on from me to others and from getting it on my clothes and spreading it onto another person I come into contact with. It is also important that all equipment is cleaned correctly to avoid cross infection this is because infection can also spread from one person to another through instruments, linen and equipment.
2. Explain employer’s responsibilities in relation to prevention and control infection. The employer has a duty to protect, so far as reasonably practicable, those at work who may be affected by work activities. This involves your employer carrying out a risk assessment to identify and assess the risk. Your employer is responsible for planning safety, providing information and updating systems and procedures. The employers responsibility with regards the prevention and control of infection is to supply PPE if the risk to health & safety cannot be adequately controlled in other ways. You must receive proper training on how to use any PPE provided and your employer should carry out regular checks to ensure it is being used correctly. They should ensure the correct storage of PPE such as gloves. Waste can be a source of infection and needs to be dealt with safely. Employers must have procedures in place to deal with waste materials and spillage to ensure it is dealt with correctly. Your employer is also responsible in reporting any outbreaks of infection within your workplace, to the Health Protection team and the Care Quality Commission.
Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections. 1 Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection. ‘There are laws and legal regulations about infection prevention and control. Most of the legal regulations relating to infection prevention and control come under the Health and Safety at Work Act; this act is about ensuring a safe work place for employers, employees and members of the public by minimising accidents at work. The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations introduced the need for monitoring health and safety and risk assessment; including infection prevention and control. The Food Safety Act was brought in to ensure safe practices for food to avoid contamination and spreading of infection and includes handling, storing and disposal of food.
Legal regulations that come under HASAWA include The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH), this is relevant as it is about the prevention and control of pathogens and managing the safe storage and use of hazardous substances. Reporting of Injury, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) is relevant as it requires that any infection or disease that is work related be recorded and reported. There are regulatory bodies such as the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) and the Food Standards Agency (FSA) that produce standards to guide and inform infection prevention and control practices. The HSE is an independent regulator for work-related health, safety and illness; provide information and advice to reduce risks of accidents occurring in the workplace including the spread of infections. NICE is responsible for providing guidance on the most effective ways to prevent, diagnose and treat disease and ill health. The FSA is responsible for food safety and food hygiene and providing advice on food safety issues.
2 describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection. Local and organizational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection are The Public Health (control of disease) Act 1984, Social Care Act, the NICE guidelines and also the companies policies and procedures that relate to infection prevention and control.
Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection. 1 Standard Operation Procedures (S.O.Ps)
Standard Operation Procedures (S.O.P’s) can be found in the main office, it covers the health and safety policy along with other legislations and regulatory body standards in accordance to the prevention and control of infection. These policies include instructions of how to carry out ‘safe’ manual handing in each room, they also include departmental dress codes, health, safety and hygiene codes, the startup procedures, corrective and preventive actions, cleaning procedures and pest control.
These standards set up by the company will reduce the risk of infections spreading and reduce the risk of hazards occurring. In a working environment that has lots of infectious substances, there are lots of procedures to ensure the risk of these spreading is reduced dramatically, if all policies and procedures are followed to the highest of standards then infections spreading should not occur and all staff will be able to work in a clean and safe environment. Personal Protective Equipment. One important S.O.P procedures involves personal protective equipment (sppe) to eliminate the possibility of cross contamination. You must at all times be clean, you must ensure that your hands are washed thoroughly and most importantly after visiting the toilet.
2 Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organisation Cross infection is one of the main benefactors for infections to break out, following health and safety policies and procedures will help in the prevention of infection. The handling of medication should be adhered to according to the medication (handling meds) policy. The changing and disposing of sppe are essential in the prevention of cross infection in accordance with Infection protection and control policy. If infection were to breakout the effects of this could result in prolonging ones recovery time or in worse cases could result in permanent disablement or even death. An outbreak of infection could also result in closure of department by CQC.
Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to prevention and control of infections
Describe the term risk.
A risk is when someone or something may be exposed to potential harm/ Infections can spread in 5 ways:
Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace.
Airborne i.e coughs and sneezes
Contamination from not washing hands after dealing with other patients or toileting. Skin to skin contact transferring dirt from human or even animal contact. Transfer of Body Fluids through not wearing correct protective equipment. Food poisoning through food not being kept at correct temperatures or out of date food
Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment
Identify the hazards : trailing wires, unsecured rugs, out of date medication, broken equipment ect. Decide who might be harmed and how, the patient or their family, myself and colleagues, any other official body entering the property. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution, Record your findings and implement them, contact relevant organisation to come and repair damaged or broken property and put sign on it to warn others. Review your assessment and update if necessary.
Explain the importance of carrying out risk assessment
The main aim is to make sure that no one gets hurt or becomes ill. Accidents and ill health can ruin lives, and can also affect business. Risk is the chance or probability that a person will be harmed or experience an adverse health effect if exposed to a hazard. It may also apply to situations with property or equipment loss. The risk is the chance, high or low, that somebody could be harmed by these and other hazards, together with an indication of how serious the harm could be. Factors that influence the degree of risk include:
• how much a person is exposed to a hazardous thing or condition,
• how the person is exposed (e.g., breathing in a vapour, skin contact),
• How severe are the effects under the conditions of exposure.
What types of hazards are there within the workplace?
A common way to classify hazards is by category:
• biological – bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc.,
• Chemical – depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical.
• ergonomic – repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc.,
• physical – radiation, magnetic fields, pressure extremes (high pressure or vacuum), noise, etc,
• psychosocial – stress, violence, etc.,
• safety – slipping/tripping hazards, inappropriate machine guarding, equipment • malfunctions or breakdowns
Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment?
1. Identify the hazards
2. Decide who might be harmed and how
3. Evaluate the risks and decide on precaution
4. Record your findings and implement them
5. Review your assessment and update if necessary
Describe the importance of carrying out a risk assessment?
Risk Assessment is part of Risk Management, a formalized process for ensuring that organizations do not expose people to unacceptable risk, ensuring all staff has had training and up keeping of their skills. A risk assessment enables all parties, employees, employer and visitors that they are within a safe
Describe different types of ppe
Plastic shoe covers
Protective eye wear
Explain the reasons for use of ppe
Personal protective equipment reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the Risk of acquiring an infection. It is important that it is used effectively, correctly and at all times where contact with blood and body fluids of patients may occur.
State the current relevant regulations and legislation relating to ppe Employees are responsible to use PPE appropriate and as instructed by employer. An employee has to check PPE before and after use and have to report any damage. Ensuring employees who store and handle dangerous substances are properly trained. Using appropriate precautions when handling substances- for example, wearing protective clothing or ensuring adequate ventilation and Checking containers are properly labelled.
Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE.
It is the responsibility of employees to ensure that they take reasonable care to protect their own health and safety and that of their co-workers and other persons in or near the workplace and Uses PPE in accordance with instruction provided. Report to management any hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or risks that they identify in their work environment. Participate in training provided by the employer, regarding the appropriate use, care, and maintenance of PPE.
Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of ppe Employers responsibilities in the relation to the prevention and control of infection are to keep everybody safe and to provide a safe work place, they do this by following current legislation. A few examples taken from the HSAWA are COSHH, The Public Health (control of diseases) Act, Food Safety Act and The Environmental Protection Regulations. Produce relevant risk assessments in order to reduce or eliminate infection risks, provide relevant training for employees as well as PPE, up to date policies and procedures, cleaning products and safe and secure storage for cleaning products, PPE etc.
Describe the correct practice in application and removal of ppe Describe the correct procedure for the disposal of sppe PPE will only protect you and others if you know how to put it on and take it off safely. The following gives you some general guidance, but specific PPE items vary. Your employer and registered staff in your area will be able to advise you. Disposable gloves
Select correct glove size and type.
Perform hand hygiene.
Pull to cover wrists.
Grasp the outside of the glove with the opposite gloved hand and peel off. Hold the removed glove in the gloved hand.
Slot your finger under the lip of the remaining glove and peel it off, taking care not to touch the contaminated outer surface. Dispose of the gloves in
the clinical waste bin.
Perform hand hygiene.
Aprons must always be changed after you finish care activites with each person. Putting on:
Pull the apron over your head and fasten at the back of your waist. Taking off:
Unfasten (or break) the ties.
Pull the apron away from your neck and shoulders, lifting it over your head and taking care to touch the inside only, not the contaminated outer side. Fold or roll the apron into a bundle with the inner side outermost. Dispose of the apron in the clinical waste bin.
Perform hand hygiene.
Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene
It is important to maintain good hygiene in order to care for your own personal appearance and eliminate body odours which might offend others/embarrass yourself. Personal hygiene refers to cleaning and grooming the body. Personal hygiene is an important way of protecting the body again diseases and infections. Good hygiene promotes self esteem and general well-being.
Poor hygiene is known to be ill received by general public. Poor hygiene is known effect people’s health and can lead to health problems as well as appearance. The failure to maintain good personal hygiene can result in illness of different kinds such as the breakdown of skin, ulcers and boils. Poor oral hygiene can lead to heart disease and plaque causing build up in the arteries. Poor hand washing can lead to spread of infectious disease such as salmonella infection. Infrequent washing of hair and skin can lead to acne and low self esteem.
Describe the correct sequence for hand washing.
Step 1 Wet hands and apply soap. Rub palms together until soap is bubbly.
Step 2 Rub each palm over the back of the other hand.
Step 3 Rub between your fingers on each hand.
Step 4 Rub your hands with the fingers together.
Step 5 Rub around each of your thumbs.
Step 6 Rub in circles on your palms. Then rinse and dry your hands
Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out.
Hands should be washed to prevent cross contamination. You should Clean your hands before touching a patient when approaching him/her Before shaking hands, Before assisting a patient in personal care activities: to move, to eat, to get dressed, Before delivering care and other non-invasive treatment: applying oxygen mask, taking pulse, blood pressure.
Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing
Antibacterial hand soap
Warm running water, although cold water is better than none. Paper towels.
Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare
The main function of skin is as a barrier and this is dependent upon the skin remaining intact. Broken skin increases the risk of infection. Effective skin care reduces the incidence of skin problems and everyone should protect their skin, not only those with sensitive skin.
Monitor reported incidents of skin disorders and identify issues requiring further attention. co-ordinate and monitor the training identified as needed to achieve and deliver the objectives and review the effectiveness of the employers arrangements for promoting good skin care practice.