The Art of public speaking Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 19 April 2016

The Art of public speaking

Chapter 1: Speaking in public
Power of Public Speaking

Greek Pericles: one who forms a judgment on any point but cannot explain it clearly might as well never had thought at all on the subject” Public speaking is consistently rated high on employers lists The Tradition of Public Speaking

Historical people who used speaking effectively
Similarities and Differences in Public Speaking and Daily

Conversation Similarities
Organizing your thoughts logically
Tailoring your message to your audience
Telling a story for maximum impact- building up your story
Adapting to listener feedback

Speaking to groups is very highly structured
Strict time restrictions
Most don’t allow for question interruptions (must plan for and anticipate questions that might arise in listeners mind) Public Speaking requires more formal language
No slang jargon bad grammar or curse words

Highly structured
Public Speaking requires a different method of delivery
Proper posture, no vocalizing fillers for times ( uhh, urm, ehh) and avoid distracting mannerisms (hand talking) and verbal habits Developing confidence: In your speech class 40 % of people said public speaking was worst fear
Everyone gets nervous at speaking, great speakers use this to help their speech

Focus on transforming nervousness to one of positive nervousness ( controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for their presentation)

Tricks to turn nervousness from negative to positive

Get experience in speaking- the more you do it the les scary it will be because its not new and threatening Be prepared- 1- hours for every minute spoken
Pick topics that are close to you
Think Positively: 5 positive thoughts for every negative one

Visualize you speaking well
You don’t look as nervous as you think
Public Speaking and Critical Thinking
Critical Thinking- focused organized thinking about such things as the logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence and the difference between fact and opinion

The Speech Communication Process

Be enthusiastic for people to be engaged in your speech
Have and intended message that will be actually be communicated

Keep a narrowed topic
Be aware of the message you are sending with your voice, appearance, gestures, facial expressions and eye contact. Don’t let your non verbal cues distract from your intended message

Channel- the means by which a message is communicated by

Listener-person receiving spoken messages
Frame of reference- the total of the listeners knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes Because the speaker and listener will never have the same meaning of a speech itll carry a different meaning for each of them Feedback- messages sent for listener to speaker

Interferencee- anything impeding the communication of the message

Extental- outside distracting noises or situations
Internal- distractions cominmg from the inside of a listner
Situation-time and place communication is going down
Taioloring a speech to the context of the event (graduation, funeral, church)

Public Speaking in a Multicultural World
Language is the biggest barrier betweent difference in cultures Enthocentrisim- belief that ones own culture is superior

Chapter 2: Ethics and Public Speaking
The Importance of ethics
Guidelines for ethical speaking
Make sure goals are ethically sound
Just because your ethical background makes you for an issue someoe who mamkes a descision against you based on their ethics doesn’t make them wrong Be fully prepared for a speech

Be prepared because you not only was your time if you speak badly but you waste the individuals in the audiences’ times as well.

Be Honest
Hiding the truth to protect the vast community isn’t unethical but lying to protect yourself is Don’t juggle statistics, quote outa context, misrepresenting sources, painting tentative findings as finite, citing unique situations as normal representation or substitute innuendo and half-truths for proof

Avoid Name calling and abusive language

Name calling- the use of stereotypical labels meant to degrade and dehumanize and silence opposing sides. Using such language is a destructive social force and will also make your audience doubt you entire speech and message Plagiarism- passing off someone else’s work as your own without credit Global Plagiarism- copying an entire document or speech verbatim Patchwork Plagiarism- piecing together more than one document and passing of as your own. Can have some transitions but a vast majority is completely copied Incremental Plagiarism- failing to give credit to an author of a quotation or paraphrase of ideas

Ways to stop accidental plagiarism

Take note of title of document
Group/person responsible for the document
Date document was last updated
Date site was accessed
Guidelines for ethical listening
Be courteous and attentive
Avoid prejudging the speaker
Maintain free and open expression of ideas
Chapter 3: Listening
Listening is Important
Listening- pay close attention to and making sense of what we hear Good listening improves efficient, sales, customer satisfaction and employee morale Effective listening correlates to higher grades

Listening and Critical Thinking
Types of listeners
Appreciative listening- listening for pleasure or enjoyment
Music movies comedy
Empathic listening- listening to provide emotional support for a speaker

Friends, family, psychiatrist
Comprehensive listening- listening to understand the message of a speaker

Class room lecture, listening to directions
Critical listening- listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejoicing it

Sales pitch, campaign speeches, sermons
Four Causes of Poor Listening
Not Concentrating
Letting your mind wander and not focus on what is being said

Listening too hard
Trying to remember insignificant amounts of information verses the speakers main points

Jumping to conclusions
Instead of waiting for answers just assuming the worst and going with it

Marking a speakers message as unimportant before even giving them a chance Focusing on delivery and personal appearance
How to become a better Listener
Take Listening Seriously
Be an Active Listener

Give your undivided attention to the speaker to genuinely try and understand their point of view

Resist distractions
Try anticipate what the speaker might say
Review what the speaker has already said
Don’t be Diverted by Appearance or Delivery
Suspend judgment
Until you hear the entire speech
Set aside your own prejudices, frames of reference and desires to fully appreciate what the speaker is trying to get across

A closed mind is an empty mind
Focus your Listening
Listen for Main Points
Listen for evidence
Matched up with the main points to support them
Questions to ask about evidence
Is it accurate?
Is it taken from objective sources?
Is it relevant to the speaker’s claims?
Is it sufficient to support the speaker’s point?
Listen for technique
Take note of any speakers techniques of delivering the speech to better your own speech techniques

Developing good note taking skills
Focus on important main points
The key word outline- outline that briefly notes a speakers main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form

Chapter 4: Giving Your First Speech
Preparing Your Speech
Developing your Speech
Focusing Your Topic
Don’t try and cover everything
Stick to the time limit
Developing Your Topic
Be creative
Only use humor if it comes natural and doesn’t offend any one

Organizing the Speech
Grab the interests of the audience
Orient audience with subject matter of speech
Organize either chronologically or topically
Use effective transitions
Limit and focus number of main points
Relate back to intro without restating
Signal that you are concluding
End strongly
Delivering your Speech
Speaking Extemporaneously (appears conversational)
A hybrid between writing the whole speech and writing nothing Uses a brief structured outline but uses spontaneity to help fill in the gaps

Rehearsing the Speech
Presenting the Speech
Relaxed natural posture
Look confident
Plant your feet keep natural small gestures
Eye contact
Very important and will impress audience
Use inflections; don’t go over bored; don’t sound monotone

Projection is key

Chapter 5: Selecting a Topic and a Purpose
Choosing a Topic
Topics you know a lot about
Draws from your own experiences and knowledge
Think unusual and unique to you
Topics you want to know more about
Something you are interested in but have little knowledge in without research

Something you have very strong opinions in
Brain Storming
Personal Inventory
Write everything about you( hobbies, experiences, likes, opinions, everything) and decide where to go from there

Make nine lists of about 4-5 entries (people places things events processes concepts natural phemonoms problems and plans) From that big list pick 3-4 entries that interest you and free- associate those out until you get a unique interesting speech idea Internet Search

Scan an online web site based encyclopedia like thing for possible topics

Determining the General Purpose
To inform
Acting like a teacher giving a lecture
To persuade
Acting like a partisan or advocate
Determining the Specific Purpose
Narrow down into 1 sentence
Tips for formulating the Specific purpose statement
Write the Purpose as a complete sentence
Express your purpose as a statement, not as a question
Avoid Figurative Language
Limit to one idea
Make sure purpose isn’t vague/ general
Phrasing the Central Idea

Chapter 6: Analyzing the Audience
Important questions
Who am I speaking to
What do I want them to know/believe/or do as a result of my speech

What is the most effective way to compose my speech to get this aim Your classmates as an audience
The psychology of audiences
People are egocentric and only care about what they are going to get from a speech Your audience will only grasp concepts in their frame of reference

Demographic audience analysis
Each generation has similar general values and experience that shape them differently from the rest Gender
Men and woman are not alike in their beliefs so take account of that Religion
Sexual Orientation
Be inclusive and avoid derogatory terms like lifestyle and homosexual Race, ethnic and cultural

Group Memberships
BASICALLY BE GENERAL AF AND DON’T STEP ON ANYONES TOES EVER BCZ PEOPLE ARE SENSITIVE Don’t try to fully change their viewpoints just open their minds Situational audience analysis-audience analysis that focuses on situational factors such as size physical setting and the disposition of the audience to the speaker, topic, and occasion Size

Larger=more formal
Size effects..
Choice of appeals
Visual aids
Physical setting
Disposition toward the topic
Things that effect the likelihood your audience will be captivated Interest
Knowledge and interest goes hand in hand
Disposition toward the speaker
Talk about things you are an expert on and definitely stay away from things you cant relate to

Disposition toward the occasion
Don’t go against the norm of typical speeches recognized at such occasions

Getting information about the audience
Adapting to the audience

Chapter 7: Gathering Materials
Using your own knowledge and experience
Doing library research
Resources you should use
Reference books
Quotation books
Biographical aids
Newspaper and periodical databases
Academic databases

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  • University/College: University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 19 April 2016

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