Sigmund Freud Essay
Sigmund Freud has investigated the Psychoanalytic Theory (1856-1939). This theory caused great inconvenience when delivered and accepted a systematic war because Freud revealed the importance and impact of human sexual impulses stressing that culture is built over their oppression. The Psychology of Conflict is one of the basic principles in the Psychoanalytic theory which sees the function of the mind as the expression of conflicting powers. Some of these forces are conscious but the key is unconscious. This conflict reflects a contradiction in dual nature of someone as a biological and social creature. During the development and socialisation of the individual it is inevitable to experience frustration anger, frustration and conflict / inconsistency (conflict). The Pleasure principle is another basic principle of psychoanalytic theory is that human psychology governed by the tendency of man craves pleasure and avoids the pain. The primary experience pleasure and pain play an important role in structuring of human personality. The Freud was first modern psychologist who gave importance to childhood. The sources of the ribs are always beyond the region of the conscious. They repulsed outside the conscious because they have painful character. Another basic principle of the psychoanalytic theory of personality is precisely this topographical perspective. Namely that every mental element judged on how accessible is the conscious. The conscious is only a small piece of psychic resources we have. Another basic principle is determinism. The events that occur in the human mind are not accidental, occasional or disconnected. The thoughts, feelings, impulses coming into consciousness are a chain of causally connected events, associated with some previous experience in life. Several of the links are unconscious.
Another key element that sees the psychoanalytic theory. Personality is the dynamic view that that there are sexual sprints instinct of life (life oriented libidinal impulses – EROS) and aggressive momenta death instinct (destructive, death, aggressive impulses – THANATOS) that irritate and cause the mind to work with, act, to change. Because of their biological base these forces have called instincts or impulses (drives). Finally, another principle of psychoanalytic theory of personality is genetic point of view, namely that the birth of contrasts / conflicts, personality traits of neurotic symptoms and general psychological structure of man can be found at major events of childhood that created desires and imaginations. The roots of psychological structures are born in fantasies and desires of childhood. The human soul consists of three concepts: the ego is the reservoir of mental energy – we are born with it which includes all biological instincts of hunger, thirst, sexual satisfaction, which give strength and direction to human behaviour. The ego begins to evolve after birth and occurs around the 6th month. The role of the ego is to mediate between that of reality, and the superego. That’s why we say that the ego operates on the reality principle and is conscious. The super- ego is the structure of personality that represents the moral principles of society as conveyed in person from their parents – is what we call conscience- and the source of obligations.
Apart from the super – conscious ego has another piece of the ego-ideal. The Id and the super- ego are constantly in a fight. When ego cannot find a solution to reconcile the desires of the Id and the super-ego, anxiety is created. Stress is a warning message that ego does not succeed in his role. A group of neo- Freudian psychoanalysts were called ‘analysts of the Ego’ (Karen Horney, Anna Freud, Erik Erikson, etc. ) who gave greater importance to me and less to that . As it’s known, Freud argued that the ego is a mere intermediary that seeks to satisfy the needs and impulses of that without disrupting or to conflict with the superego. But according to analysts of the Ego , the one no longer seen as the superpower of mental structure and I treated like a force that has the ability to control the environment and to choose the time and manner in which satisfy the impulses of the id. The ego is considered capable to create and achieve satisfactory targets chosen by the individual. So between the instinctual drives, external conditions and Act inserted the thought that controls both the internal energy as and reactions of the individual to the external environment. A second new direction influenced psychoanalytic thinking emphasizes the importance of social relationships to explain the formation of personality. So instead of seeing human nature as the result of conflicts around the momenta of him, seeing it more as the result of the child’s relationship with other important people in his life . This direction is reflected in the modern psychoanalytic method called Theory of the relationship with the object or object relations (Object Relations Theory – Melanie Klein, Heinz Kohut).
This theory emphasizes the relative adhesion (attachment) of the baby, especially the mother, and the importance of the quality of these early attachments for the development of the ego of the child, feelings about oneself and developing interpersonal relationships in later life. So theorists of the relationship with the object they see the relationship with parents as an important determinant of the direction taken by the personality of the individual. Apart from these two directions of psychoanalytic thought seeing two of their colleagues nearby Freud, who came into conflict with him, to create their own schools. Jung disagreed with Freud about the nature of the subconscious. Jung believed that the unconscious is not just a reservoir of forbidden impulses and repressed memories, but also the source of our drive for pleasure and creativity. Jung also believed that within us there is a struggle of opposing forces. Every man has a passive – a feminine nature and dynamics – masculine nature. Each one of us also has elements of introversion and extroversion. Also, there is a struggle between the face we present to others (persona) and private self-image (anima / animus). According to Jung, the work of every man is to be able to unite these opposing forces.
The Adler disagreed with Freud because he believed that the main force mobilization in human life is not the satisfaction of sexual momenta, but the effort for supremacy. By this meant the interior searching for perfection. Adler said that all children are born with a deep sense of inferiority because of their small size, natural weaknesses and lack of knowledge and power in the world of adults. First used the term inferiority complex. Adler believed that the way parents relate to their children has a significant effect on the child’s ability to overcome these feelings of inferiority and succeed in later life. So Adler saw personality as deeply influenced by the quality of raw social relations. Also important psychoanalytic thought is that Karen Horney saw this adult personality as shaped by childhood experiences, but, unlike Freud, she gave this emphasis on social relationships – especially with parents – instead of solving contradictions of Him . The Horney talked about feelings ” basic anxiety » (basic anxiety) and «basic hostility » (basic hostility).
When parents behave indifferently, derogatory and instability, the child feels insecure and helpless experiencing basic anxiety. These feelings, according to Horney are accompanied by a deeper feeling of resentment towards parents- basic hostility. Because this hostility cannot be expressed directly, because the child needs and fears his parents, repelled and leads to feelings of worthlessness and anxiety. This tension between basic hostility and basic anxiety leads the child, and later neurotic adult, adopt one of the following 3 stops social interactions; An action towards other, an action against others and an action away from others. When moving towards the other, the person succumbs to others and is always anxious to please them in order to gain approval and love. The person moving against the other is trying to find confidence through domination. The goal of the person who moves away from others is to protect himself, to find safety in the distance, the removal. So he never wants to create close relationships. All these protective mechanisms create many interpersonal problems.