Availability Of Instructional Materials Essay
Availability Of Instructional Materials
Some people learn in different ways. Some people are extraordinary good of retaining information fed to them orally and others absorb and retain a great deal of information that they’ve read. Others need visual stimulants or cues to facilitate learning.
Education in Basilan State College is now experiencing a period great change, and problematic situations that can spur creative and innovative effects towards educational experiences. The needs to restore the learners are the instructional materials, because it helps to stimulate and motivate learners. (Esu, Enukoha and umeron 2004).
Education will have to project new vision and a new perspective which will expand the school of the community and make it its laboratory for the teaching-learning opportunities that will be provided.
Teachers will be a key factor in education and in a culture like ours, they will still be accepted authority in the classroom. Educational facilities and instructional materials do need in improving performance, but in view of limited resources creativity and innovativeness most are experience in their used.
Since all effort will involve all people, actions of education system must be directed to make all sectors like media, association and other government and non government agencies compliment rather than compete in the task in developing education so that it can contribute more substantially to the rebuilding of our nation.
Instructional materials are said to be part of the instructional procedure. Thus, studies have shown that when skills are related to practical situations, attitude and improve. Inyang-Abia and Esu (1990) cited in Esu et. Al (2004) asserts that instructional materials are the pivot or which the wheel of individuals differ in so many aspects and they learn at different levels, so providing alternative resource materials is very necessary. The purpose of instruction therefore, is to help people learn. Instruction may include events that are generated by a page of prints, by a picture, by television program, or by combination of physical objects among other things.
The aim of designing instruction is to activate and support learning of the individual pupil. This aim is characteristic of instruction whenever it occurs whether between a tutor and the pupil in a school classroom, an adult interest or the job setting.
A fundamental reason for designing instruction is to ensure that no one educationally disadvantaged and that all pupils have equal opportunities to use their individual talents to the fullest degree.
Instructional design calls for a preplanning it involves preparing a blue print of instructional development and delivery, utilizing multimedia, multi disciplinary approaches with objective of improving the teaching and learning processes on one hand.
These instructional materials brought about meaningful insight and provide direction for change in education.
Basic instructional materials will have to be developed very carefully since these may have in the process of education. They should provide for the desirable values and the skills and knowledge proposed to be learned in each learning level and adequately provide for mastery learning which is requisite to the achievements of quality.
Good teaching is not an accident. It is thoroughly planned and organized by a teacher who has in mind the nature of the learners, the objective of the lessons and the availability of materials. All that happens inside the classroom contributes to the learner’s acquisition of knowledge, values and skills. The learning environment provides very meaningful experience not only to the learners but to the teachers as well.
Good teachers become better teachers when they used appropriate materials in their classroom.
Instructional materials have been defined by various authors. For example, Obanya ( 1989) viewed them as didactic materials thing which supposed to make learning and teaching possible. According to Abdullahi (1982) instructional materials or tools usually made or imported that could made tremendous enhancement of lesson impact if intelligently used. Ikiereonwun (Isola 2010) refered to them as objects or devices, which help the teacher to make a lesson make clearer to the learner. Instructional materials are also described as concrete or physical objects which provides sound, visual or both to the sense organs during teaching (Aguina-obu) 2005). There are also instructional materials that educators use which provide creative ideas to assist in the learning process. Finally, instructional materials can help one troubleshoot a product that is not functioning properly. Instructional materials serve as the channel between the teacher and the students in delivering the instruction. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching- learning process Instructional Materials serve as the channel between the teacher and the students in delivering the instruction. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching- learning process. Use to get the attention of the students in order for them to experience boredom, just want to add the importance of instructional materials is that good instructional materials do not teach it encourage the learners to learn. Conceptual framework
Instructional materials are in various classes.
Statement of the Problem
This study was conducted to determine the availability of instructional materials of the college of Health and Science in Basilan State College.
Specifically, it answers the following questions.
1. What are the instructional materials use by the teacher of college of Health and Science
2. To what extent is the audio instructional materials used by the teacher in terms of:
b. Tape recording
3. To what extent is the visual instructional materials used by the teacher in terms of:
d. Film Strip
4. To what extent is the audio-visual instructional materials in terms of:
c. Slide show
Hypothesis of the Study
The under listed hypothesis were formulated to guide these study.
There are no significant difference between students taught with standard instructional materials, improvised materials and convention instruction. There is no significant relationship between availability of instructional materials and effective implementation of College of Health and Science.
Significance of the Study
With insights on the availability of instructional materials brought about meaningful insights and provide direction for change in education. Through the use of instructional materials the students are easily arouse their learning. Students may have different interest and abilities that determine their pace of learning.
With the use of instructional materials for the teacher in place, their instructional efficiency can be improve.
The overcome of this research may help the teacher in place and load more available instructional materials in their classroom or materials.
This research will increase and improve the implementation of the available instructional materials to indulge the learning of the students.
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Teaching materials is a generic term use to describe the resources teachers use to deliver instruction. Teaching materials can support student learning and increase student success. Teaching materials come in many shapes and sizes, but they all have in common the ability to support student learning.
This study was conducted in the College of Health and Science at Basilan Sate College Isabela City Basilan. This study determines the availability of instructional materials in College of Health and Science.
Teachers at all levels utilize a variety of instructional materials such as textbooks, presentations, and handouts to enhance the quality of their lessons. The quality of those materials directly impacts the quality of teaching. Knowing how to find the best instructional materials is valuable skills for a teacher.
What the use of instructional materials should be useful when they used it, the students can easily gain important information.
These instructional materials are used to aid the transference of information from one to another. Right for instance, a teacher may use instructional materials to aid in the learning of subject matter in the class.
Instructional materials serve as the channel between the teacher and the students in delivering the instruction. They may also serve as the motivation on the teaching learning process.
Definition of Terms
For better comprehensive of this study, the following terms were defined: 1. Availability – The quality or state of being available (Merriam Webster)
2. Instructional Materials – Educational resources use to improve students’ knowledge, abilities, and skills to monitor their assimilation of information, and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing.
3. Students – is a learner or someone who attends an educational institution.
4. Teacher – Teacher is the one of parent who thinks good for our future and is the only person who helps us to make the decision then the right for us.
5. Needs – A need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants because a deficiency could clear a negative outcomes, such as disfunction or death. Needs can be subjective or physical, such as food, or they can be subjective and psychological, such as the need for the self – esteem.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Some people say that learning can be learned through the use of visual-aids and as a matter of fact, 75% of learning can be acquired through the sense of sight. Now a days students are very much particular with its comes to the teachers visual-aids. Sometimes they find the discussion boring if the teacher didn’t provide their visual-aids.
Traditional instructional materials are the materials traditionally use by the teachers to their students in teaching their lessons. It includes the use of textbook, chalk, board, marker, charts and flash cards. These are the common materials that help the teachers to explain the lessons clearly.
These are materials that are use to aid the transference of information from one to another. For example, a teacher may use instructional materials to aid in the learning of subject matter for a class. These instructional materials could include power point presentations (visual aids).
The list can go on and on some call them instructional materials while others may call learning or teaching aids.
Instructional materials serve as the channel between the teacher and the students in delivering the instruction. They may also serve or the motivation on the teaching learning process.
Students learn principally through interactions with people (teachers and peers) and instructional materials (textbooks, workbooks, instructional software, web-based content, homework, projects, quizzes, and tests). But education policymakers focus primarily on factors removed from those interactions, such as academic standards, teacher evaluation systems, and school accountability policies. It’s as if the medical profession worried about the administration of hospitals and patient insurance but paid no attention to the treatments that doctors give their patients.
There is strong evidence that the choice of instructional materials has large effects on student learning—effects that rival in size those that are associated with differences in teacher effectiveness. But whereas improving teacher quality through changes in the preparation and professional development of teachers and the human resources policies surrounding their employment is challenging, expensive, and time-consuming, making better choices among available instructional materials should be relatively easy, inexpensive, and quick. Student learning occurs primarily through interactions with people (teachers and peers) and instructional materials (textbooks, workbooks, instructional software, web-based content, homework, projects, quizzes, and tests).
The contexts within which these interactions occur are surely important. The effectiveness of teachers, the behavior of peers, and the instructional materials with which students have the opportunity to interact are affected by layers of influences that range from circumstances in the home, to leadership in the school, to the international macro-economy and everything in between. But students do not engage in instructional interactions with the governance mechanism for their school or with state standards or with a school district’s evaluation system for teachers or with collective bargaining agreements or with the leadership qualities of their school principal—they learn by engaging in cognitive processes that are triggered and shaped by interactions with people and instructional materials.
The balance between attention to context and attention to instruction has come to be substantially out-of-kilter among education policymakers.2 It is as if the managers of a professional sports team spent most of their time and resources on the layout of the stadium, the advertising of the games, the logistics of travel, and the equipment in the weight room while giving little attention to playing the game itself. Instructional interactions are the core of student learning but policymakers attend mostly to context. We must give priority to the education policies that are most likely to improve instructional interactions if we are going to achieve substantial progress in student achievement.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES
These chapters discuss the Research Methodology, Instructional Materials and Achievement Grades, Survey Data and Survey Population and Instrument.
An instructional material has been shown to have positive impact on teaching and learning in classrooms (Baylor and Ritchie, 2002). For this study, instruction materials were defined as all the materials and equipment that are used to enhance the teaching and learning process, specifically chalkboards, flip charts, locally available resources, overhead projectors, videos, and computers.
The academic achievements in the College of Health and Science could be attributed to many factors among which teachers strategy itself was considered as an important factor. The teaching without instructional materials may certainly result in poor academic achievements.
The availability of instructional materials has been found to the consistently positive determinant of academic achievement. In addition to studying the effects of availability of instructional materials like textbooks on achievement it is important to know the extent to which the instructional materials being used in the College of Health and Science to the learning needs of the students in the said college.
The purpose of this study was to survey students to determine what instructional materials were available in the teacher training colleges.
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS
There have been several studies on instructional materials and academic achievement. For instance, Momoh (Isola, 2010), conducted a research on the effects of instructional resources on students’ performance in West Africa School Certificate. Examinations (WASCE) in Kwara State. He correlated material resources with academic achievements of students in ten subjects. Data were collected from the subject teachers in relation to the resources employed in the teaching. The achievements of students in WASCE for the past five years were related to the resources available for teaching each of the subjects. He concluded that material resources have a significant effect on student’s achievement in each of the subjects.
In the same manner, Moronfola (1982) carried out a research in Ilorin Local Government Area of Kwara State. She used questionnaires to collect data on the material resources available for the teaching of some selected subjects in ten secondary schools and related these to students’ achievements in each of the selected subjects and to the amount of resources available for the teaching of the subjects. Finding showed a significant effect of material resources on the students’ academic performance in these subjects.
In the same vein, Popoola (1990) investigated the effect of instructional resources on the academic achievements of students in Ogun State. Five secondary schools in Abeokuta were used for this study. Questionnaires were designed to elicit responses on instructional materials that were available for the teaching and learning of each of the three school subjects he examined. He collected WASC examination results for five years and compared achievements of students in schools with adequate material resources and achievements of students in schools with inadequate material resources. He found a significant difference in the achievements of the two sets of students. The schools with adequate instructional materials performed better than those with inadequate instructional materials.
The absence instructional materials in the school were great limitation to a number of teachers. Administrators should be aware of the importance of the instructional materials as an instructional tool and provide it to the teacher. Like for instance, textbooks and exercise books are the most important teaching/learning aids. In this study it was found that in general teachers had textbooks for the subjects they were teaching.
THE SURVEY DATA
There are several ways that surveys can reach respondents for completion. A researcher can contact respondents by mailing the surveys to them and wait for their responses. The advantages with mail out surveys are that the researcher is able to reach participants who are scattered and cannot easily be met in person, and also that respondents have ample time to think of the answer.
On the other hand, mailing has a disadvantage because in many cases response rate is low, and the researcher must make several attempts to remind
participants to respond (Ary, Jacobs and Razavieh, 2002, Fowler, 2002, Rea and Parker, 1997).
In this study the researcher administered the survey in person, one by one. Despite the time and expense incurred, this approach helped the researcher to have a high response rate (Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh, 2002), since the surveys were collected immediately after completion.
Another advantage was that since the respondents were clustered at their classes it was possible to get almost all respondents at the same time and allow them to fill in the surveys at the same time. In addition, as Ary, Jacobs, and Razavieh (2002) put it, “the researcher is present [and can] provide assistance or answer questions” about the items. SURVEY POPULATION AND INSTRUMENT
The population for the survey was derived from the ten (10) respondents in the College of Health and Science.
The instrument used in this study were self-design contains of 7 items and 2 choices or options the “Yes or No “. The respondents are the students of College of Health and Science an we gathered at least 10 respondents in the said college. The students were made to check the answer of the survey questionnaire.
The survey questionnaire was use to measure the achievements of the students in the College of Health and Science through the use of various instructional materials through the contribution also of their teachers. And it was used to measure how does these instructional materials affecting the grades pr the achievement grades of the students in the College of Health and Science.