Agro Based Industries Essay
Agro Based Industries
Location -The first cotton textile mill on modern lines was started in Bombay in 1854. Later the mills were started at Ahmedabad in 1858, then in Kanpur, Nagpur, Sholapur, Surat and other places. As I said before, today India holds the third place among the cotton textile producing countries of the world. It provides emplyment to a large number of people and also helps to ear foreign exchange. Gujarat and Maharashtra states, lead the country in cotton textile production. Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the important centres. Mumbai has the largest number of cotton textile mills. It is themain cotton textile centre in India. Mumbai is called COTTONPOLIS OR MANCHESTER of India. (Manchester is the main cotton textile centre of England.) The other important centres of cotton textiles are Nagpur and Sholapur in Maharasthra, Kokatta in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Indore in Madhya Pradesh, Surat in Gujarat, Salem, Coimbatore and Chennai in Tamil Nadu, Bangalore and Davangere in Karnataka and Delhi.
•RAW MATERIAL: The main input of cotton textile industry is cotton. Cotton is easily available in most of the states. Though Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana are the leading producers but it is produced in many other states. The main input of iron and steel industry is iron which is available in Peninsular India only. •LIGHT RAW MATERIAL AND FINISHED PRODUCTS: Raw material and finished products of cotton textile are light so the cost of transportation is less whereas raw material and finished products of iron and steel industry are heavy so the cost of transportation is high.
Products Made from Cotton Lint/Fibre
Cotton lint is spun then woven or knitted into fabrics such as velvet, coruroy, chambray, velour, jersey and flannel About 60% of the world’s total cotton harvest is used to make clothing, with the rest used in home furnishings and industrial products Well known cotton products include denim jeans, socks, towels, t-shirts, bed sheets and underwear More unusual uses of cotton fibre include tents, car tire cord, fishnets and book binding Products Made from Cotton Seed
Over half the weight of unprocessed cotton (seed cotton) is made up of seed The most common uses of cottonseed are oil for cooking and feed for livestock. Cotton seed is pressed to make cottonseed oil. Cottonseed can be made into a meal and is a popular feed for cattle and livestock as it’s a great source of energy Cottonseed oil can also be used in a range of industrial products such as soap, margarine, emulsifiers, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, rubber, paint, water proofing and candles Cottonseed oil is cholesterol free, high in poly-unsaturated fats and contains high levels of anti oxidents (vitamin E) that contribute to its long shelf life Products Made from Cotton Linters
Cotton linters are fine, very short fibres that remain on the cottonseed after ginning. They are curly fibres typically less than 3mm long Linters are used in the manufacture of paper (such as archival paper and bank notes) and as a raw material in the manufacture of cellulose plastics Linters are commonly used for medical supplies such as bandages, cotton buds, cotton balls and x-rays OR
A variety of products are produced by the cottage industries: FOOD PROCESSING: Edible and non-edible oils through ghanis, khandsari, sugar, palm,gur, etc.
Cotton is India’s one of the principle crop in India. It plays a vital role in the Indian Economy by providing employment to substantial number of countrymen. Cotton provides direct employment to 60 Lakh farmers of the country and provides indirect employment in cotton related industry to around 4-5 Crore People. Cotton is also one of the largest foreign exchange earner commodities of India. Apart from providing one of the basic necessities of life, the textile industry also plays a pivotal role through its contribution to industrial output, employment generation and the export earnings of the country. It contributes about 14% to the industrial production, 4% to the GDP and 14.42% to the country’s export earnings. Production Status: During the year 2008-09, the cotton production in the country was estimated to be 290 lakh bales as against the production of 307 lakh bales during the previous year.
Productivity of Cotton is Poor: India’s Cotton Productivity is far behind many countries of the world. The Highest Productivity is in China (1251 kg/ hectare). World average of cotton productivity is 766 kg/ hectare and in India the Cotton productivity is 567 kg. /hectare Why there is low Productivity? Main reason is that 65% of area under cotton cultivation is rainfed. With the further possibility of higher use of Bt seeds/ Hybrid seeds and a decline in the cost of such seeds, it is projected that by the terminal year of XI Five year plan (2007-2012), the yield per hectare will increase to 700 kgs and cotton production will reach the level of 390 lakh bales.
Waste generated and method of disposall-
Location-on left bank of River Bhadra at Bhadravati ( Karnataka ) Even in Modern times, Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (Karnataka) was setup near jungle to get wood-charcoal. (Later switched to hydro-electricity from Sharawati river) iron space and steel industry started moving toward coastal sites to reduce cost of transporting ores from port to factory via railways. : Salem Steel Plant at Tamil Nadu, Bhilai Steel Plant at Chattisgarh, Durgapur Steel Plant at West Bengal, Alloy Steel Plants at West Bengal, Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant in Karnataka, Rourkela Steel Plant at Orissa, Bokaro Steel Plant at Jharkhand. Iron and steel industries are located at Jamshedpur (Jharkhand) or around the Chhotanagpur plateau (bordering W. Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and M.P)
Raw materials used The main raw materials used in iron and steel industry are iron ore, manganese, limestone, silica, chromate, feldspar, scrap iron, flux, and fuel. Coking coal obtained from Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro, Giridih and Korba is used as a fuel. Manganese is used for hardening of steel and also for removing impurities. Steel products need to be falvanised to make them rust free. This is done by galvanising iron with chromium, nickel and tungsten. Iron: Ore is the most important and basic raw material of the iron and steel industry. Fuels: The most important fuels are coal and coke. Modern blast-furnace use coke. Many iron and steel plants even to-day use charcoal. Water: Water is an important raw material for iron and steel industry.
It is mainly used to quench coke, to cool blast furnaces, to make steam to coal furnace doors, to operate hydraulic machinery and to have sewage disposal. Air: Air is an important raw material for iron and steel industry. Near about 4 tones of air are required to make a ton of steel. Flux (Limestone and dolomite): Flux is used in the blast-furnace to draw impurities out of the melting ore. Limestone and dolomite combine with the extracted impurities to form slag. Refractories: Both blast and steel furnaces are lined with refractories. Refractories are used for lining furnaces for smelting iron ore. It is also used for lining of the furnaces of locomotives, boilers and making fire bricks. Silica or Sand is used for molding.
Water: Water is an important raw material for iron and steel industry. It is mainly used to quench coke, to cool blast furnaces, to make steam to coal furnace doors, to operate hydraulic machinery and to have sewage disposal. Air: Air is an important raw material for iron and steel industry. Near about 4 tones of air are required to make a ton of steel. Ferro-alloys: For the production of steel of different grades various non-ferrous metal aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, tin, tungsten, zinc, vanadium etc. Ferro-alloys are used. Among all these Ferro-alloys, manganese is used widely in this industry. Electricity: Electricity is required for the production of iron and steel industry. So Hydro-electricity or Thermal power or Atomic power is required.