A) An ulcer starts by eroding the mucosa of the GI tract wall. What functions of digestion and/or reabsorption might be lost if this layer is no longer functional? What functions will be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and then the muscularis?
Some of the ingested and secreted may not be absorbed correctly and may seep lumen if the mucosa layer is no longer functional. The functions that may be compromised if the ulcer eats through the submucosa and the muscularis would be the breakdown of food and mixing it with digestive secretions. If the ulcer eats through the muscularis it may be difficult for digestion to occur.
B) If Zach has a peptic ulcer affecting his stomach or duodenum, which components of the peritoneum will be affected?
If the ulcer isn’t taken care of right, or is untreated for a while it may eat a hole through the stomach wall and/or duodenum, and cause food that hasn’t been fully digested and bacteria to spill into the peritoneum. When this happens it can cause inflammation in the abdominal cavity and wall. If the ulcer is located right where the duodenum is attached it may cause swelling and scaring which can lead to narrowing or even closing of the intestinal opening.
C) How can Zach’s stomach contribute to the formation of ulcers in other parts of the GI tract? Which cells directly participate in ulcer formation, and how do they contribute to the creation of lesions in the GI tract wall?
The way that the stomach can contribute to the formation of ulcers in other parts of the GI tract is by the acid and pepsin that is needed for the breakdown of food when there is too much and the stomach is not able to defend itself against the digestive fluids. The secretory cells called gastric glands and the parietal cells are directly related to the formation of ulcers.
D) Why does Zach’s GI tract need the substance that contributes to the formation of ulcers? How is this substance secreted by the cells within the gastric pits?
E) If Zach’s only normal digestive enzymes come from his mouth, what substances will he be able to digest?
F) What do you think the ultimate fate of Zach’s pancreas would be if the hepatopancreatic ampulla continued to be blocked? What do you think would happen to the liver and then eventually to the rest of Zach’s body?
G) What enzymes has Zachary’s body been unable to use because of the blockage of the hepatopancreatic ampulla? What are the specific molecules these enzymes work on?
H) Selecting one of Zach’s symptoms of fever, diarrhea, or weight loss, explain how inflammation of one section of the small intestine could lead to that symptom.
I) With Zach’s new diet, which type of lipoprotein will decrease in circulation the most? Which type of lipoprotein do most people wish they could decrease, and why? Which one do most people wish they could increase?
J) In a healthy person, other molecules can be substituted into the pathways of glucose catabolism when the blood glucose level is low. What specific molecules will Zach now have problems making during times of low glucose and what is the normal source of these molecules?
K) If Zach is no longer ingesting foods high in lipid content, how will his body continue to supply itself with phospholipids, lipoproteins and cholesterol? Without an adequate supply of lipidsin the body, what process will most likely increase in his hepatocytes to ensure proper ATP production in times of low blood glucose?