Explain the differences between modern day nursing education and the old hospital based training model.
Modern day nursing is quite a different experience and process when compared to the old hospital based training system. Today’s nursing is theory based. Nurses learn the theory behind actions, procedures and decisions, before gaining the experience of performing the action or duty within the profession. In stark contrast the hospital based system is on the job, training where the nurses learn various processes as they present themselves and the theory is explained after the process has been demonstrated or when the applicable lesson comes to pass. The training was often governed by the skills required on the ward on that particular day, rather than the broad range of skills and knowledge that is achieved with the modern evidence based training model (Koutoukidis, Stainton & Hughson 2013 pp. 4 – 19).
1a). When did the Diploma of Nursing become the nationally recognizedentry level qualification for Enrolled Nurses in Australia? Why did this occur? The diploma of nursing was nationally recognized in 2010, it coincided with the establishment of the Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Authority (AHPRA). This was essential as previously each state had a different system and standards and this was not practical for national management .This was evident when nurses would transfer jobs between states and find that the skill sets were not equal (Koutoukidis, Stainton & Hughson 2013, pp 10)(Australian Health Practitioners Regulatory Agency 2012).
2a). Discuss two primary health care strategies which aim to combat health issues such as poor nutrition, diabetes, obesity or tobacco smoking in aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander communities.
The prevalence of diabetes among Indigenous people, is estimated to be over 3 times the rate of non-Indigenous people. Indigenous people have a higher prevalence of overweight or obesity and related chronic diseases. Primary health care strategies include,Increase the number of Indigenous health workers trained in diabetes management, early detection and prevention and increase the capacity for more training programs. Advance the role and status of Indigenous health workers.
Increase the number of allied health visits.
Support Indigenous people to undertake professional training in medicine, nursing and allied health disciplines. Engage Indigenous communities in the development and implementation of culturally appropriate diabetes prevention and management strategies. Another common health problem affecting the Indigenous people is obesity. Strategies to combat this problem include A Healthy Food Compact between governments, industry and non-government organizations with voluntary targets to drive change; work with industry, health and consumer groups to introduce food labelling on front of pack and on means to support healthier food choices. Phase out television advertising to children of unhealthy food & beverage product within four years through a staged approach commencing with monitoring effectiveness of voluntary industry codes.
Implement a comprehensive, sustained social marketing strategy to increase healthy eating, physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour, building on the “Measure Up” campaign. Implement comprehensive workplace health programs, including development of a national accord to promote best practice. Establish a national series of comprehensive five-year intervention trials in low SES and Indigenous communities Incorporate Health and Physical Education for all Australian children into the second stage of National Curriculum development; monitor a requirement for at least two hours of physical activity per week for students K–10; and expand coverage of out-of-school-care programs.
b). What are some of the challenges that may need to be overcome in order for these strategies to work effectively.
There are a number of disturbing trends among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples that reveal an entrenched health crisis. Continued higher rates of poor educational attainment and employment among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander which can impact on health strategies not being taken seriously. Continuing poor tendency towards poor access to primary health care due to inaccessible locations where they live. High levels of increased prevalence of substance abuse and alcohol and tobacco use (Australian Human Right Commission, 2013).
3a). If a patient is from a low socio economic background, how might this affect their health and wellbeing? Low economic background can affect a patient in various ways for instance, poor education and literacy are linked to poor health status, and affect the capacity of people to use health information. Poorer income reduces the accessibility of health care services and medicines. Overcrowded and run-down housing which is very commonamong the Aboriginal people is associated with poverty and contributes to the of communicable disease. Poor infant diet is associated with poverty and chronic diseases later in life. Smoking and high-risk behaviour is associated with lower socio-economic status (Australian Human Right Commission, 2013).
3b. Explain how cultural factors impact on clients in the health care environment and affect views about health and illness.
In order to improve health care delivery and outcomes, providers must develop the cultural competence to serve patients from diverse cultures. Western culture takes a “biomedical approach to health care. However, many cultures take a more holistic approach that includes the body, mind, and spirit” (Culture and language training for a multicultural workplace, 2012, pg 2). Health care providers should know the patient’s cultural views on role of family (roles of members, hierarchy, decision-maker), Role of community, Religion (impact on diet, beliefs about illness, treatment). Views on health and wellness, death and dying, Eastern/western/alternative/traditional medicine. Beliefs about causes and treatments of illness, disease (physical and mental), Gender roles and relationships, Sexuality, fertility, childbirth Food beliefs and diet.
4a. Describe the role of the following professional nursing bodies: Nursing and midwifery board of Australia.
The role of nursing and midwifery board of Australia is to register the qualified nurses, midwifery practitioners and the students. It develops standards, codes and guidelines for nursing and midwifery professional. It handles notifications, complaints, investigations and disciplinary hearings. It assess overseas trained practitioners who would wish to practice or work in Australia. Approves accreditation standards and accredited courses of study.
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation
Australian nursing and midwifery federation approves and ensures the qualifications for nurses and midwives are met, salaries and wages are of the same level with the qualifications and the environment in which they are working on are at their best in terms of cleanliness and good sanitation. (Funell,Koutoukidis and Lawrence 2009, p.6)
Australian College of Nursing/Royal College of Nursing Australia
It forms the base of forming Australian Nursing via contribution of progressive qualification growth and guidance evaluation and development.
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council
It maintains a suitable state of Australian wellbeing by proving and promoting high level of nursing care and midwifery education. Provides legal authorization levels for nursing and midwifery future events. It gives legal authorization to Australian Nursing and Midwifery future events showing the way of enlisting and support.
4a). Describe the role of the following professional bodies: Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia.
The role of nursing and midwifery board of Australia is to register the qualified nurses, midwifery practitioners and the students. It develops standards, codes and guidelines for nursing and midwifery professional. It handles notifications, complaints, investigations and disciplinary hearings.
It assess overseas trained practitioners who would wish to practice or work in Australia. Approves accreditation standards and accredited courses of study.
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Federation:
Australian nursing and midwifery federation approves and ensures the qualifications fornurses and midwives are met, salaries and wages are of the same level with thequalifications and the environment in which they are working on are at their best in terms of cleanliness and good sanitation.(Funell,Koutoukidis and Lawrence 2009,p.6)
Australian College of Nursing/Royal College of Nursing Australia: It forms the base of forming Australian Nursing via contribution of progressive Qualification growth and guidance evaluation and development.
Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council:
It maintains a suitable state of Australian wellbeing by proving and promoting high level Of nursing care and midwifery education. Provides legal authorization levels for nursing and midwifery future events. It gives legal authorization to Australian Nursing and Midwifery future events showing the way of enlisting and support.
b). Explain the important occupational health and safety considerations for professional nursing practice in the healthcare environment.
It points and evaluates the possible harm the may raise from anything that can cause harm in the workplace. It looks at the causes in the workplace and working activities which affects identification and assessment of the risks from health hazards in theworkplace·surveillance of the factors in the working environment and working practiceswhich may affect workers’ health, including sanitary installations, canteens and housing where these facilities are provided by the employer advice on planning and organization of work, including the design of workplaces, on the choice, maintenance and condition of machinery and other equipment and on substances used in work .
5a). Explain how Enrolled Nurses can ensure that legal and ethical aspects are duly considered when providing care for a young person with a moderate intellectual disability.
Nurses should be aware of the basic needs of the person since he or she is of still young, they should be in a position to cope with their behaviour since some can be Illitating, they should use engaging activities whenever the patient is upset, the should always consider the patient’s preferences and observe privacy confidentiality. They should always use helping aids to the area of their disability and assist them .
b). Explain how Enrolled Nurses can provide appropriate support to a client and their family when they are dealing with death and dying. Nurses can support client and family when dealing with death and dying to help promote the individual psychological comfort by talking to friends and family to give company the patient if the patient is willing to .This helps minimize feeling of isolation and loneliness .Informing “the type of care and treatment that is required to be given, giving them a chance to express their feelings, listening carefully to their needs, them by a touch appropriately. Enrolled nurses also provide spiritual care and should be sensitive to each client’s spiritual needs (Funnell, Koutoukidis, and Lawrence 2009, pp.172, 173).
6a.) Describe the roles and responsibilities of an Enrolled Nurse within the multidisciplinary health care team in the following healthcare settings.
Enrolled nurses, under the direction and supervision of registered nurses, assist with the provision of acute, preventative, curative and rehabilitative nursing care in hospitals, aged-care facilities, the community and other healthcare setting.
Aged care setting: attend to patients’ hygiene and comfort by assisting with bathing, showering, dressing and bed-making, assist patients with meals when required, assist patients with rehabilitation exercises and programs, assist in the care of wounds, assist in emergency situations, assist in providing education on health and lifestyle issues maintain a safe environment for patients and assist with the prevention of injuries.
Acute care setting: Enrolled nurses may perform the following tasks, assist with initial and ongoing health assessments and the maintenance of patients’ health, observe, measure and record patients’ conditions (their temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure and blood sugar levels, for example), report changes in patients’ conditions
6b). In your own words, briefly explain the purpose of the following documents: National Competency Standards for the Enrolled Nurse (ANMC, 2002):
National Competency Standards for the Enrolled Nurse was formed to keep the nurses on their toes to proceed with their duties at a high level and maintain the required standards in their job in order to meet the safety of their clients. (Funnell, Koutoukidis and Lawrence 2009, p.10)
Code of Ethics for Nurses (ANMC, 2008)
This is a document introduced to focus on the behavioral of nurses across Australia. It indicates the bases of ethical standards and virtues of the nurses and formed legally in support of qualified nursing guidelines and behavioral standards. It equips nurses with a source of information whereby they can compare their conduct, directs the nurses in professional decision making and potrays to the public the human legal rights levels and ethical virtues the nurses are expected to adhere to (Nursing and midwifery board, 2008).
Code of Professional Conduct for Nurses (ANMC, 2008)
The purpose for code of professional conduct for nurses is to indicate a stand of least national standards of conduct that individuals of nursing professional are legally required to meet. It communicates to the public the level of professional behavioral it requires the nurses to meet. It gives the public and the governing bodies associated with nursing a setback for discussing the professional conduct for nurses (Australian Nurses and Midwifery Council, 2008)
7a. List four types of continual professional development (CPD) activities that Enrolled Nurses might complete in order to update or develop their skills
Basic life support that incudes Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). Fire safety.
7b. Explain how the following may be used to assist Enrolled Nurses with improving their professional practice.
Nurses can show their competency by providing evidence of what they know best by the individual growth undertaken by the nurses, such as self-learning and compulsory education.
A reflective journal is a personal record of experiences and that of others and this helps the nurses in their professional practice by identifying areas that provides learning space, meeting the need required in your situation paying attention to the outcomes and comparing with the past experiences.
Performance review has a crucial role in improving nurses performance recognizing and improving employees’ progressive actions. By this, the nurses perform their duties diligently and to their best (Australian nursing federation.org.au).
8a. Name four sources or areas of employment opportunities for Enrolled Nurses in the contemporary health care environment.
The Enrolled nurses can be employed in public or private organisations.This includes Australian government which is the key to establishing national health laws, regulation and funding. Community sector
Aged care sector
Mental health sector
8b). What does an Enrolled Nurse need to do to prepare for a job interview (e.g. what materials might they need to prepare?).
In order for an Enrolled Nurse to be ready for an interview one needs to have a resume, police clearance certificate, APHRA registration certificate, immunization records, relevant competency certificates like CPR and Manual handling.
9a.Give two examples where nursing practice decision flow chart can be used.
In a case of a pregnant woman the expected outcome to her and her new born baby and in case of illness such as diabetes nursing practice flow chart can be used to determine whether the activity to be undertaken is suitable to the current scope of practice and to determine if the facility have work health and safety guidelines and if the staff are well trained(Nursing and Midwifery board, 2007). 9b. In your own words, briefly explain what is meant by scope of practice as an Enrolled Nurse.
Scope of practice is a national structure for the growth of making important ideas for nursing and midwifery practice. Under the Australia Nurses and Midwifery Council, scope of practice of an employee nurse is the area of qualification where one competent and allowed to practice. In order to perform in the scope of practice, employees are expected to upgrade their knowledge and skills. It may be influenced by the area in nurses’ practice.
10a. What are the four types of health records that nurses regularly use to communicate client information to the healthcare team? How are they each used? The four types of health records that are used to pass information regarding the wellbeing of a client includes, handwritten clinical notes from the physician, laboratory reports that shows the test results, incidents reports and statement which are used to indicate what type of incident that occurred, what time and the location of the incident. Letters to and from the doctor and other health practitioners.
10b. In your own words, briefly explain the meaning of a holistic and consumer or client-centered approach to healthcare in the contemporary Australian healthcare system.
Holistic care is the care given to the whole individual. It notices the special or particular needs of each individual and their personal qualities. It is a requirement that every nurse is aware of physical, psychological and spiritual needs when attending to clients which are mainly difficult to tell by word of mouth. Consumer or client-centered approach includes combination and organization of interpersonal and professional skills that ends up in a compounded environment of Socialization which leads to a better bond between the nurses and the patient (brooker, Waugh 2013, p.42).
Nursing and midwifery board, 2008. Viewed, 5 June, 2014. http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au. Australian Human Rights Commission, 2013. Viewed june 5 2014.https://www.humanrights.gov.au/publications/achieving-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-health-equality-within-generation-human#the-challenge. Culture and language training for a multicultural workplace, 2012. Viewed 5 June 2014. http://www.callearning.com/blog/2012/07/10-cultural-factors-that-influence-health-care/ Nursing and Midwifery board, 2007. Viewed 30 May 2014. http://www.nmb.nsw.gov.au/National-Decision-Making-Framework/default.au
Nursing and midwifery board http://www.nursing midwiferyboard.gov.au Australian Nurses and Midwifery Council, 2008)www.nursingtimes.net www.anmac.org.au