India , the one and only land, defines the most diversified beauty at its pristine location with versatile attraction. Not only in terms of culture, festival and eloquent historical monuments; but this incredible land is best accosted with a variety of wildlife living amidst the astonishing landscape and a wide range of floral beauty. With almost 4% of land under the forests, Indian wildlife is perfectly known as rich and diverse. Lying along the Indomalaya ecozone, India is a significant home with perfect biodiversity to 7.6% of all mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, and 6.0% of flowering plant species. Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; overall, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. India’s forest cover ranges from the tropical rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Himalaya Conservation is concerned with the long-term preservation of cultural property through examination, documentation, treatment, and preventive care.
Conscious efforts to conserve and protect global biodiversity are a recent phenomenon Wildlife conservation is the science of analyzing and protecting the Earth’s biological diversity, which is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, or for the entire Earth. Biodiversity on the Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species. Wild life provides an aesthetic value to man. Wildlife of a country is its cultural asset. To maintain ecological balance of nature and maintain food chain and nature cycles Wildlife conservation is the practice of protecting endangered plant and animal species and their habitats. Among the goals of wildlife conservation are to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness lands to humans.
Many nations have government agencies dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent nonprofit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes. The government can formulate laws and policies, put various Conservation Projects into place but the success of these projects lies with the people. It is the community that is responsible for the effective implementation of these initiatives. As members of a community it is our duty to conserve and protect the Natural Vegetation and Wildlife not just for our present but for the future generation as well. It also ensures sustainable development
Aims & Objectives
Why I chose the topic?
Conserving wildlife is crucial to avoid negative outcomes and sustain the services we acquire. In nature, different species are connected through various food webs. It’s a fact that the disappearance of one species could influence several others down the line. The loss of an animal that isn’t especially important economically or culturally could unexpectedly affect a type of animal that is, so widespread wildlife conservation is a general preventative measure for unforeseen problems. There are many reasons – both emotional and practical – why wildlife conservation is important.
Conservation can have powerful, direct impact on the daily lives of people around the world, as well as on plant and animal life and the environment as a whole Wildlife diversity has a broad appeal. The psychological benefits of biodiversity for humans can be difficult to measure, but they’re also difficult to dismiss. Studying animals and their habitats can be a valuable learning experience for students of all ages.so I have selected this topic of wildlife conservation “God loved animals and created forests, Man loved animals and created cages.”
To promote the welfare and conservation of primates.
To provide a home for life to primates in need of rescue and rehabilitation. To end the trade in primates for any purpose and the abuse of primates in captivity. To conserve and restore natural habitats in the UK and abroad through funding ,education and sustainable practices.
Protection of natural habitats of organisms through controlled exploitation. Maintenance of rare species in protected areas such as national parks, sanctuaries etc., Establishment of specific biosphere reserves for endangered plants and animals. Protection of wild life through legislation such as banning hunting etc., Imposing specific restrictions on export of endangered plants and animals or their products. Educating the public about the need to protect and preserve the environment as a long range goal for the welfare of future generations
There are four main areas reasons why wildlife conservation is important: Scientific Value: Many plants and animals are as yet unstudied by scientists, and thousands of species have not even been discovered yet. The study of animals is important to understand the process of evolution. . Most important contribution of wild life for human progress is availability of large gene pool for the scientists to carry breeding programmes in agriculture, animal husbandry and fishery. There are many plants in the rainforests that have not yet been studied, which could have medicinal properties. Animal life and plant life are inextricably linked – so to preserve the natural balance of these plants, we must protect the animals.
Economic Value: Many communities job’s and even survival depend upon wildlife. Wildlife has economic value. Many wild plants provide useful substances like timber, paper, gums etc. And they also have wide applications in Ayurveda and other branches of medicine. Wild animals’ products are tusk, ivory, leather, honey etc. Many wild species also provide fur, meat and skins to smaller communities. Again, animals are crucial to the survival of plant life, so if animal populations suffer, so will plants – this means our supply of many foodstuffs and of wood will be depleted.
Ecological Balance: Imagine how dull and ugly the world would be without wildlife? It would be like living in a giant concrete car park – the seas would be covered in algae so there would be no nice beach holidays, areas of wilderness would be barren with only weeds surviving, as animals are needed to disperse plant seeds, and without them hundreds of plant species would die out. Wildlife Conservation is important. The most important reason is the maintenance of ecological balance. Many other reasons can be given like biodiversity. Animals are generally heterotrophs and depend on each other for food. So, if one species dies out then due to its extinction the species dependant on it for food too dies out and so on We should protect the wildlife because directly or indirectly our life DEPENDS on them
Having a clear description of the methods that will be used to accomplish the project objectives will make a strong application even more competitive. Mainly there are four types of methods which can be followed:
– Historical method
Survey or case-study method
Descriptive method and lastly
The method which I have adopted for accomplishment of my project is descriptive methodology which helps analyze the whole data. Survey brings the whole data from the actual world and thus, keeps it realistic, while the description helps the reader understand the data coherently. The bulk of methodology discussion contains detailed descriptions of what project activities will be conducted and how they will be carried out. As my “plan of attack”, my proposed methodology shows a logical and well-thought-out plan to carry out reasonable project activities that will lead to the desired outcome. Descriptive method describes in a coherent manner, data naturally progressing from start to finish.
Source of collection of data: The descriptive data has been collected through the secondary source namely the Internet. Websites like Wikipedia and other online as well as offline encyclopedias have provided the required information which has been summed up properly. Statistical Data used in the form of tables and graphs have also been collected through the secondary sources.
Types of species
Normal species :- Species whose population levels are considered to be normal for their survival, such as cattle, sal, pine, rodents, etc.
Endangered species:- These are species which are in danger of extinction. The survival of such species is difficult if the negative factors that have led to a decline in their population continue to operate. The examples of such species are black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion tailed macaque, sangai (brow anter deer in), etc
Vulnerable species :-These are species whose population has declined to levels fromwhere it is likely to move into the endangered category in the near future if the negative factors continue to operate. The examples of such species are blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, etc.
Rare species :-Species with small population may move into the endangered or vulnerable category if the negative factors affecting them continue to operate. The examples of such species are the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox and hornbill, etc
Endemic species :- These are species which are only found in some particular areas usually isolated by natural or geographical barriers. Examples of such species are the Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, Mithun in Arunchal Pradesh.
Extinct species :-These are species which are not found after searches of known or likely areas where they may occur. A species may be extinct from a local area, region, country, continent or the entire earth. Examples of such species are the Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck Major threats to wildlife
The only way hunting is a sport is if animals are given a weapon too Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:
Change in Habitat: When an ecosystem has been dramatically changed by human activities—such as agriculture, oil and gas exploration, commercial development or water diversion—it may no longer be able to provide the food, water, cover, and places to raise young. Every day there are fewer places left that wildlife can call home. There are three major kinds of habitat loss: Habitat destruction: A bulldozer pushing down trees is the iconic image of habitat destruction. Other ways that people are directly destroying habitat, include filling in wetlands, dredging rivers, mowing fields, and cutting down trees.
Habitat fragmentation: Much of the remaining terrestrial wildlife habitat in the U.S. has been cut up into fragments by roads and development. Aquatic species’ habitat has been fragmented by dams and water diversions. These fragments of habitat may not be large or connected enough to support species that need a large territory in which to find mates and food. The loss and fragmentation of habitat make it difficult for migratory species to find places to rest and feed along their migration routes. Habitat degradation: Pollution, invasive species and disruption of ecosystem processes (such as changing the intensity of fires in an ecosystem) are some of the ways habitats can become so degraded that they no longer support native wildlife. Climate change: Global warming is making hot days hotter, rainfall and flooding heavier, hurricanes stronger and droughts more severe.
This intensification of weather and climate extremes will be the most visible impact of global warming in our everyday lives. It is also causing dangerous changes to the landscape of our world, adding stress to wildlife species and their habitat. Since many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight drop or rise in average rainfall will translate into large seasonal changes. Hibernating mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. Natural phenomena like floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires. Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife.
Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms.Pesticides and toxic chemical being widely used, making the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents. Perhaps the largest threat is the extreme growing indifference of the public to wildlife, conservation and environmental issues in general. Over-exploitation of resources, i.e., exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing and over-grazing for example). Over exploitation is the over use of wildlife and plant species by people for food, clothing, pets, medicine, sport and many other purposes.
People have always depended on wildlife and plants for food, clothing, medicine, shelter and many other needs. But today we are taking more than the natural world can supply. The danger is that if we take too many individuals of a species from their natural environment, the species may no longer be able to survive. The loss of one species can affect many other species in an ecosystem. The hunting, trapping, collecting and fishing of wildlife at unsustainable levels is not something new. The passenger pigeon was hunted to extinction early in the last century, and over-hunting nearly caused the extinction of the American bison and several species of whales.
Out of all the species that have ever existed since the beginning of time, 98% of them are extinct (Facts). There are an estimated 5-10 million species that exist currently and only 1.5 million have been identified (Sherry, 2). Scientists classify species into six different groups: plants, animals, insects, algae, fungi, and microorganisms (Today’s Situation). In the tropical rainforest alone, most species are disappearing at the rate of 1% a year (Sherry, 6). If the current trend continues, at least 50% of all currently existing species will be either extinct or endangered by the year 2050 (Today’s Situation). For this reason endangered species deserve more protection than the current regulations provide Throughout history there have been many different reasons for theextinction of species.
The earliest known reason was 64-66 million years ago when scientists believe a meteorite struck earth causing the extinction of the dinosaur and of 85% of the species existing at the time (Sherry, 2). Another major problem is the introduction of species into a new environment. Mostintroduced species become pests because they have no natural enemies and can easily out compete native species that have natural enemies, thus overpopulating a certain environment (Sherry, 5). The main causes of extinction are habitat destruction, commercial exploitation, damage by non-native species introduced into the environment, and pollution (Definition of endangered species).
Out of all of these, habitat destruction is the major source of extinction. It is thought that at least 4,000-6,000 species become extinct each year in the rain forest alone due to burning acreage to make room for farm fields (Today’s situation). Most of the human caused extinctions occurred during the Industrial Revolution, which was 250 years ago (Sherry, 2). Another significant reason for the decline, if not extinction of species is hunting and poaching animals. Measures for wildlife conservation
Nature is a treasure save it for pleasure
Wildlife is Mother Nature’s greatest treasure, To protect it, we must take every measure. Animals gone, Trees gone, Human gone
DONT MAKE THEM HISTORY
Wildlife conservation as a government involvement
(a) The Congress finds the survival of many animals and plant species is endangered by over hunting, by the presence of toxic chemicals in water, air and soil, and by the destruction of habitats. The Congress further finds that the extinction of animal and plant species is an irreparable loss with potentially serious environmental and economic consequences for developing and developed countries alike. Accordingly, the preservation of animal and plant species through the regulation of the hunting and trade in endangered species, through limitations on the pollution of natural ecosystems, and through the protection of wildlife habitats should be an important objective of the United States development assistance.
The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed “framework” to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the “International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources” (IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)”
The strategy aims to “provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions.” This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended “users” of the strategy to its very priorities. It even includes a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption and are therefore endangered by over fishing. The main sections are as follows: The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems.
Preservation of genetic diversity that is flora and fauna.
Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.
Priorities for national action:
A framework for national and sub-national conservation strategies. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.
Priorities for international action:
International action: law and assistance.
Tropical forests and drylands.
A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas
Active non-government organizations
Many NGOs exist to actively promote, or be involved with wildlife conservation: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization working on issues regarding the conservation, research and restoration of the environment, formerly named the World Wildlife Fund, which remains its official name in Canada and the United States. It is the world’s largest independent conservation organization with over 5 million supporters worldwide, working in more than 90 countries, supporting around 1300 conservation and environmental projects around the world.
National parks and wildlife sanctuaries
For management and protection of wildlife and their habitat, protected area (PA) …National Parks (NP) and Wildlife (WL) Sanctuaries has been created in India .. Wildlife in India is world-recognized and marked by the presence of around 99 national parks, 442 wildlife sanctuaries and 43 tiger reserves all over the different states. The establishment of these different national parks and wildlife reserves are recognized under the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) categories II protected areas. The establishment of these bio-reserves and sanctuaries is dedicated to finding pragmatic solutions for the safety of environment and protecting the challenging conditions of the endangered species in different biological regions.
Hailey National Park (now the Jim Corbett National Park) being the first national park of India is the allurement of many and an exemplar notion of ecological conservation in India. Participating in the same noble cause, some more popular destinations of the endangered species are Ranthambore National Park, Kaziranga National Park, Gir National Park, Periyar National Park, Hemis National Park, Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Panna and more, that house some of the most unique sub-species in India. These national parks are perfectly defined as their homes due to the optimum conditions offered by them, for their proper breeding and upbringing.
Wildlife: Save it to cherish or leave it to perish We come to analyze that the effects of wild life depletion are 1.Unbalanced Food Chain and Ecosystem 2.Reduction in rare wild animals 3.Danger to human life 4.Impact on biodiversity 5.Loss of economic value 6.Loss of genetic information It may be ensured that Increased understanding about the worlds current wildlife situation and an increased emphasis on education will give the future generations an opportunity to experience nature to its fullest extent The implications of this socio-economic and demographic scenario for wildlife are: 1) heavy pressure from subsistence and commercial hunting, as at present; 2) the profound alteration of indigenous wildlife habitats; 3) little or no control over either of these processes by the competent authorities, and, 4) mounting pressure on wildlife and wildlife habitats as the human population continues to grow. How serious the situation is varies from one country or region to the next, but the general trend is the same everywhere except where there has been vigorous reform to attack the root causes of underdevelopment and rural marginalization.
The conclusions is a well defined and demarcated area of parks, nature reserves and wildlife sanctuaries, fully staffed and well funded to permit the flora and fauna in these areas to live, thrive and to reproduce in perpetuity in their natural environment. There should be a very minimal presence of humans ensuring security of the flora and fauna living in these areas. People would be allowed in moderate numbers, such as photographic safaris to view the wildlife and with the income generated, funds could be used to enhance security and to provide for years of drought. We ourselves have created the need for conservation of wildlife. It can be viewed from several angles such as, beauty,economic value, scientific values for research and values for snivel. The main causes of extinction of wild lives are poaching, enumerable animals and birds are hunted for meat, skin, ivory, horns etc. ruthlessly.
Hence, National Wildlife Action Plan has been adopted in 1983 for wildlife conservation. Many sanctuaries and National Parks have been established for the protection of dwindling wildlife Protection of Wildlife alone is not possible only by laws and Government. Despite all of these laws and efforts, destruction of wildlife, illegal trade and poaching continues. Active cooperation from the common public is also very necessary. It is now high time for us to understand the gravity of the situation and act on its behalf. And this can only be achieved by our awareness and by further stringent laws by the Government. We must not lose the national treasures in our rat race of urbanization and modernization.
Speak for the ones without a voice
Extinction is forever, endangered means we still have time. Think good to wildlife, be good to wildlife and do good to wildlife Bibliography: In order to make this project the references which were used for data collection are as follows: “Wildlife Conservation”. Conservation and Wildlife.
Retrieved 1 June 2012. “World Conservation Strategy” Retrieved 01-05-2011 www.google.com www.wikipedia.com
http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/environmental-issues/why-is-wildlife-conservation-important Scott, J.M. and Schipper, J. 2006. Gap analysis: a spatial tool for conservation planning. Pp. 518-519 in M.J. Groom, G.K. Meffe, C. Ronald Carroll and Contributors. Principles of Conservation Biology (3rd Edition) Some books of E.V.S. THANK YOU ……….