Researchers began to focus on what style of leadership was most effective in a particular situation with a particular manager. Contingency or situational theories look for the best fit between the leader and the situation and provide guidelines for a manger to achieve this fit. Managers adjust their decision making, orientation and motivational approach based upon a unique combination of factors in their situations for example characteristic of an employee, type of work and organization structure, personal preferences for the employee and the upper level management input.
Describe the House-Mitchell Path-Goal Theory and their view of appropriate leadership styles. Path-Goal theory is built on two concepts – the Ohio State leadership studies and the Expectancy Model of Motivation and is describes the way that leaders encourage and support their employees in achieving the goals that have set by making the path clear and easy. Supervisors will make it clear with employees what their path is and the best way to get there, move anything that may stop the employee from reaching their goal and increase the rewards.
What are the potential outcomes of having lower level employees participate in the MBO process? Management by objective is basically proves whereby the senior and junior management of an organization jointly identify the common goals. In some cases this process has been very successful when hourly employees are included. An effective function of this system is an agreement between a manager and its employee’s group performance goals during a stated time period. Emphasize on these goals can be either output or intervening variables or some type of combination of both. Most important thing is that the goals are set and agreed upon in advance and both the employee and manager participate in the review and evaluation.
How are Likert’s casual, intervening and end result variables useful in discussing and thinking about effectiveness? Casual are factors that influence the course of development within an organization and its results or accomplishments.
Intervening represents the current condition of the internal state of an organization. Output or end results are dependent and reflect the achievement of the organization. In evaluating effectiveness more than 90 percent of managers in an organization look at measures of output or end results alone. Managers often determine net profit by effectiveness.