Life is very complex and complicated. But an aim in life can make the complex life simple and purposeful. Aims give us direction to work and without aim, destination, or objective life becomes incomplete and haphazard. Individual has different interests, attitudes and needs. Every individual wants to achieve certain goals in life. But a clear-cut aim makes the road of life easy. Educational aims are varied. They have their different role in different fields. Some specific aims are listed below: (i) Knowledge Aim: The aim of education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. It helps to adjust properly in one’s own environment.
Knowledge helps the man to overcome the nature and satisfy human wants. It links the teacher and taught with social situation. It helps with certain skills to live in a society as human being and civilized one. Philosophers and educationists of the world believe in knowledge. It is the valuable asset of life, which helps the individual to overcome misery and problems of life. (ii) Vocational Aim: Knowledge aim of education is narrow by nature. The theoretical knowledge will never meet our basic needs of life. We need bread and butter to fill up our belly. We can get it if education is vocationalised.
Gandhiji realized it in 1937 when he introduced Basic Education. Vocational aim develops the social efficiency of the individual. It reduces mental tension after completion of education. Those who are lower, intelligence in vocational education or training are a blessing for them. Realizing this aspect. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) introduces work-experience in the curriculum. (iii) Character Building Aim: The Indian concept of education believes in self-realization. Self-realization is possible through moral education. So the individual should cultivate moral virtues or values which constitute character.
Swami Vivekananda said, “We want that education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one’s own feet. ” (iv) Complete-Living Aim: The individual has various aspects to be developed. Every aspect of the personality is reflected in various activities to be performed. Education should help the individual to fulfill the various needs and necessities of life like self-preservation, fulfilling necessities of life, rearing and bearing of children, performing civic responsibilities and utilizing his leisure time properly.
Firstly, the individual must know the art of self-preservation. Secondly, education should enable to him to earn his living. Thirdly, he should know how to take care of his own children. Lastly, he must have the idea how to utilize the leisure hours properly in a profiting manner. (v) Harmonious: Development of the personality aim- Gandhiji said, “By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit. ” The meaning itself indicates to develop all-round aspects of individual-physical, intellectual, social and spiritual. All these aspects of the individual should be harmoniously developed.
True education is development of 3H’s instead of 3R’s. The development of Head, Heart and hand of an individual makes him happy. (vi) Democratic Aim of Education: One of the important aims and objective of education suggested by Secondary Education Commission (1952-54) is to develop the democratic citizenship. India is a democratic country. Even citizen must have to realize the duties and responsibilities carefully. So the aim of education is to train carefully the future citizens. Training should be provided to develop the following qualities of the individual. (i) Capacity for clear thinking.
(ii) Receptivity of new idea (iii) Clarity in speech and writing (iv) True patriotism Further the democratic aim of education develop vocational efficiency, personality and leadership quality. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) under the chairmanship of Dr. D. S. Kothari suggested the following as the aims of education in a democratic set-up. (i) Increasing productivity (ii) Developing social and national integrity (iii) Making education modernized and (iv) Cultivating of social, moral and spiritual values. =============================================================