Systems Analysis and Design (SAD) is an exciting, active field in which analysts continually learn new techniques and approaches to develop systems more effectively and efficiently. In business, SAD refers to the process of examining a business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods. System analysis and design relates to shaping organizations, improving performance and achieving objectives for profitability and growth. The emphasis is on systems in action, the relationships among subsystems and their contribution to meeting a common goal. Systems development can generally be thought of as having two major components: Systems analysis and Systems design. System design is the process of planning a new business system or one to replace or complement an existing system.
System analysis is the process of gathering and interpreting facts, diagnosing problems, and using the information to recommend improvements to the system. This is the job of the systems analyst. A system is orderly grouping of interdependent components linked together according to a plan to achieve a specific objective. Its main characteristic are organization, interaction, interdependence, integration and a central objective. To construct a system, system analyst must consider its elements- input and output, processors, control, feedback, and environment. Systems are classified as physical or abstract, open or closed, and man-made information systems. A system may be schematic, static or dynamic. An information system is an open system that allows inputs and facilitates interaction with the user. The main characteristic of an open system are input from outside, processing, output, operation in cycles through feedback and differentiation.
Organizations are complex systems that consist of interrelated and interlocking subsystems. Changes in one part of the system have both anticipated and unanticipated consequences in other parts of the system. The systems approval is a way of thinking about the analysis and design of computer based applications. It provides a framework for visualizing the organizational and environmental factors that operate on a system. When a computer is introduced into an organization, various functions’ and dysfunction’s operate on the user as well as on the organization. Among the positive consequences are improved performance and a feeling of achievement with quality information. Among the unanticipated consequences might be a possible threat to employee’s job, a decreased morale of personnel due to back of involvement and a feeling of intimidation by users due to computer illiteracy. The analyst’s role is to remove such fears and make the system a success.
After completion of learning of System Analysis and Design, we will be able to explain the phases in systems analysis and design, demonstrate the appropriate use of software to illustrate the SAD phases and models, build SAD modelling using various techniques, demonstrate the appropriate systems architecture and user interface design and evaluate the systems implementation methods and maintenance management in SAD.
As a conclusion, SAD is the process of developing and maintaining an information system. People will eventually apply the skills on the job in a business environment.