Statistics is mathematical analysis involving the use of quantitative, models and summaries for a given set of tested data or observations. Statistical analysis involves the process of collecting and analyzing data and then summarizing the data into a numerical form. Today there is no social ,commercial or even governmental activities not dependent on statistics from the beginning of the project until its end. When you start planning any new project must be the work of, for example, a study on the product and the need of people and past experiences and the suitability of the product with the nature of the area and people, etc.. There are tow types of Statistics are Descriptive Statistics and Inferential Statistics :
Descriptive statistics includes statistical procedures that we use to describe the population we are studying. The data could be collected from either a sample or a population, but the results help us organize and describe data. Descriptive statistics can only be used to describe the group that is being studying. That is, the results cannot be generalized to any larger group.
Inferential statistics is concerned with making predictions or inferences about a population from observations and analyses of a sample. That is, we can take the results of an analysis using a sample and can generalize it to the larger population that the sample represents. In order to do this, however, it is imperative that the sample is representative of the group to which it is being generalized.
The statistics was in the ancient times the scope of statistics was few and limited. With the passage of time the scope of statistics became wider and wider. Thus the statistical methods were used in physical and then in other social sciences. Today, there is hardly a phase of human activity does not find Statistical scope at least occasionally useful and necessary. Economics ,anthropology psychology, Agriculture, business, education and natural phenomenons all heavily based on statistics. It is clear that statistical analysis is very important for all quantitative analysis to whatever field of inquiry they might relate and it intervenes in all the different areas of life.
The limitation of statistics:
The statistics despite its power, essential use fullness and universal applicability statistics has its own limitation and imperfections like:
1. Statistics does not study individual.
2. Statistics does not study qualitative phenomena.
3. Statistics data do not reveal the story
4. Statistical results are not always unquestionable
5. Statistical laws are true on the average or in the long run 6. Statistical data are liable to be misused easily.