Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of the phenomenon under study. It is the function of the researcher to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon and to communicate that understanding to others. This chapter explains what research is and what it is not. Eight characteristics of research are presented. The process of research as a helical cycle is discussed. -Research is the investigation of a particular topic using a variety of reliable, scholarly resources. The three major goals of research are establishing facts, analyzing information, and reaching new conclusions. The three main acts of doing research are searching for, reviewing, and evaluating information.Learning what research is not may help you fully grasp the concept. Randomly selecting books from the library is not research, nor is surfing the Internet. On the contrary, research requires organization, resourcefulness, reflection, synthesis, and above all, time. 1.to search or investigate exhaustively
2. studious inquiry or examination; especially : investigation or experimentation aimed at the discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts, or practical application of such new or revised theories or laws 3. the collecting of information about a particular subject
-Research is defined as the creation of new knowledge and/or the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings. This could include synthesis and analysis of previous research to the extent that it leads to new and creative outcomes. This definition of research is consistent with a broad notion of research and experimental development (R&D) as comprising of creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications This definition of research encompasses pure and strategic basic research, applied research and experimental development. Applied research is original investigation undertaken to acquire new knowledge but directed towards a specific, practical aim or objective (including a client-driven purpose).
Research is the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information to increase our understanding of the phenomenon under study. It is the function of the researcher to contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon and to communicate that understanding to others. This chapter explains what research is and what it is not. Eight characteristics of research are presented. The process of research as a helical cycle is discussed.
Characteristic of a good researcher
The researcher should be a creative and highly motivated individual, a good problem solver who sees problems as challenges to be overcome rather than avoided. They need to have a good appearance, since they will be representing the company with many outside agencies. They should be able to work as a member of a team and to take direction. An minimum educational qualification of a degree in a relevant field is often required. They should also possess excellent oral and written skills, being able to communicate easily, effectively, persuasively on the phone and in writing. Proven postgraduate research experience, a multidisciplinary academic background, good visual sense, demonstrable interest in interactive multimedia and basic word-processing skills are advantageous.
Classification of research byMethods
1.What was? : HistoricalResearch2.What is? : Descriptive Method3.Why? : Explanatory Method4.What will be? ExperimentalMethod : Ex post FactResearch or Causal-Comparative Method
Characteristics of a good
Obsessive attention to detail
How to Formulate a Research Problem
Research is crucial to discovering new information. Perhaps the most important part of research is formulating a research problem. Formulating a research problem shows a researcher where previous researchers have been deficient and identifies avenues of study that have not yet been pursued. Researchers must be careful to formulate their research problems properly in order to make sure that their research intent is not ambiguous, and to make sure that the information obtained through the research is of significance.
Formulation of a problem is the first thing that people should learn before formulating a title for the research and before writing a research. Without a problem, there will be nothing to prove. It means, no problem = no research. Now, it doesn’t also necessarily mean that if you already have the problem, you are now ready to write a research. Problems must be critically formulated and must be approved first by the one handling the course.
There are problems that are very common and there are also problems that are not re-searchable for the students. There are problems that are not suited for undergraduate students because of the time it could take and there are also those problems that are not suited for the course. Problems must be chosen carefully. If you are on the medical field, as much as possible try to formulate problems that are related to medicine only and that you think is easy to research. Same goes with other courses like Psychology, Education and etc. problems must be related on the field of study that a person is taking.
People should also need to remember some things in formulating a problem. Is it feasible? Is it re-searchable? Is it ethical? Is it not expensive and etc. There are many things to consider before formulating a problem that is why a researcher must think critically. Researchers also need to be careful on picking a problem cause sometimes problems formulated for a research have ethical/morale issues.
Reading different articles, journals, books and other thesis may help the researchers formulate a good problem. It is a must to practice this kind of technique, because it will really help researchers a lot.
Problems and titles of a research must be also very specific to avoid some problems during a research and much worst total revision.
Examples of formulated problems and title .
Field of Psychology:
Problem: What is the effect of violent cartoon television series on children ages 4-6 years old? Title: The effects of violent cartoon television series on children ages 4-6 years old
(note: This are only samples so do not use the titles)
Problem: What is the effect of cigarette smoking on people who have asthma? Title: The effects of cigarette smoking on people who have asthma
Problem: What is the significance of a good classroom environment on students during examination? Title: Good classroom environment it’s significance on students during examination.
That’s all what i can share on formulating a problem. There are lots of problems to formulate and there are those that are really good ones. Just try to think and read some books and previously published thesis so that you can formulate a good problem of your own.
Test accommodations for special education (SP) and limited English proficient (LEP) students have attracted much attention recently, because proper accommodations promote inclusion and allow students to perform optimally. A meta-analysis of 30 research studies found empirical evidence supporting the position that, with appropriate accommodations, SP and LEP students can increase their scores on standardized achievement tests. Compared to conditions of no accommodation, students increased their scores by an average of 0.16 standard deviation. Relative to general education students, accommodated SP and LEP students demonstrated an average accommodation advantage of 0.10 standard deviation. Interpretations of these average effects require careful analyses because of the variety of accommodations, the specific status of the students, and the varying implementations of the accommodations.
Providing additional time or unlimited time is the most frequently investigated accommodation. Other accommodations investigated were assistive devices, presentation formats, response formats, test settings, radical accommodations, and combinations of accommodations. Age did not seem to be a factor; elementary and postsecondary students benefited from accommodations. Narrative descriptions are given of the situations in which positive and negative effects of accommodation appear to emerge. An appendix lists and summarizes the studies analyzed. (Contains 63 references.) (ERIC: Author/SLD)
A widely-used research method in which 1) a systematic and reproducible search strategy is used to find as many studies as possible that address a given topic; 2) clear criterion are presented for inclusion/exclusion of individual studies into a larger analysis; 3) results of included studies are statistically combined to determine an overall effect (effect size) of one variable on another.
Reviews 25 controlled studies comparing the progress of children with behavioral disorders* in different educational settings. Pupils in self-contained special programs displayed greater improvement in academic achievement than their counterparts in regular classes. However, the reverse pattern applied to changes in self-concept. Findings regarding behavioral improvement were more inconsistent. Follow-up data include enormous fluctuation in the success of special programs in assisting youngsters with behavioral disorders to reintegrate successfully into regular classes. Findings show that youngsters with behavioral disorders require more support than is available to the regular classroom teacher unassisted by at least * Best-Evidence Synthesis A research method that combines a meta-analytical approach to synthesizing quantitative findings with a narrative review of related qualititative studies.
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