An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. It can also be considered as the viewing glass or perspective through which individuals see their organization and its environment. Organizations are a variant of clustered entities.
An organization can be structured in many different ways, depending on their objectives. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs. Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual. Organizational structure affects organizational action in two big ways. First, it provides the foundation on which standard operating procedures and routines rest. Second, it determines which individuals get to participate in which decision-making processes, and thus to what extent their views shape the organization’s actions. Example:-
INTRODUCTION TO ICICI BANK
ICICI Bank is India’s second-largest bank with total assets of about Rs.1,67,659 crore at March 31, 2005 and profit after tax of Rs. 2,005 crore for the year ended March 31, 2005 (Rs. 1,637 crore in fiscal 2004). ICICI Bank has a network of about 560 branches and extension counters and over 1,900 ATMs. ICICI Bank offers a wide range of banking products and financial services to corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and through its specialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment banking, life and non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management.
ICICI Bank set up its international banking group in fiscal 2002 to cater to the cross border needs of clients and leverage on its domestic banking strengths to offer products internationally. ICICI Bank currently has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom and Canada, branches in Singapore and
Bahrain and representative offices in the United States, China, United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh and South Africa.
ICICI Bank’s equity shares are listed in India on the Stock Exchange, Mumbai and the National Stock Exchange of India Limited and its American Depositary Receipts (ADRs) are listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). As required by the stock exchanges, ICICI Bank has formulated a Code of Business Conduct and Ethics for its directors and employees.
At April 4, 2005, ICICI Bank, with free float market capitalization of about Rs. 308.00 billion (US$ 7.00 billion) ranked third amongst all the companies listed on the Indian stock exchanges.
ICICI Bank was originally promoted in 1994 by ICICI Limited, an Indian financial institution, and was its wholly-owned subsidiary. ICICI’s shareholding in ICICI Bank was reduced to 46% through a public offering of shares in India in fiscal 1998, an equity offering in the form of ADRs listed on the NYSE in fiscal 2000, ICICI Bank’s acquisition of Bank of Madura Limited in an all-stock amalgamation in fiscal 2001, and secondary market sales by ICICI to institutional investors in fiscal 2001 and fiscal 2002. ICICI was formed in 1955 at the initiative of the World Bank, the Government of India and representatives of Indian industry.
The principal objective was to create a development financial institution for providing medium-term and long-term project financing to Indian businesses. In the 1990s, ICICI transformed its business from a development financial institution offering only project finance to a diversified financial services group offering a wide variety of products and services, both directly and through a number of subsidiaries and affiliates like ICICI Bank. In 1999, ICICI become the first Indian company and the first bank or financial institution from non-Japan Asia to be listed on the NYSE.
After consideration of various corporate structuring alternatives in the context of the emerging competitive scenario in the Indian banking industry, and the move towards universal banking, the managements of ICICI and ICICI
Bank formed the view that the merger of ICICI with ICICI Bank would be the optimal strategic alternative for both entities, and would create the optimal legal structure for the ICICI group’s universal banking strategy.
The merger would enhance value for ICICI shareholders through the merged entity’s access to low-cost deposits, greater opportunities for earning fee-based income and the ability to participate in the payments system and provide transaction-banking services.
The merger would enhance value for ICICI Bank shareholders through a large capital base and scale of operations, seamless access to ICICI’s strong corporate relationships built up over five decades, entry into new business segments, higher market share in various business segments, particularly fee-based services, and access to the vast talent pool of ICICI and its subsidiaries.
In October 2001, the Boards of Directors of ICICI and ICICI Bank approved the merger of ICICI and two of its wholly-owned retail finance subsidiaries, ICICI Personal Financial Services Limited and ICICI Capital Services Limited, with ICICI Bank.
The merger was approved by shareholders of ICICI and ICICI Bank in January 2002, by the High Court of Gujarat at Ahmedabad in March 2002, and by the High Court of Judicature at Mumbai and the Reserve Bank of India in April 2002. Consequent to the merger, the ICICI group’s financing and banking operations, both wholesale and retail, have been integrated in a single entity. Figure.1
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational software corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services related to computing. The company was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975. Microsoft is the world’s largest software maker measured by revenues. It is also one of the world’s most valuable companies. Microsoft was established to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800.
It rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems. The company’s 1986 initial public offering, and subsequent rise in its share price, created an estimated three billionaires and 12,000 millionaires from Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has increasingly diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions.
In May 2011, Microsoft acquired Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in its largest acquisition to date. As of 2013, Microsoft is market dominant in both the PC operating system and office suite markets (the latter with Microsoft Office). The company also produces a wide range of other software for desktops and servers, and is active in areas including internet search (with Bing), the video game industry (with the Xbox and Xbox 360 consoles, and the upcoming Xbox One console), the digital services market (through MSN), and mobile phones (via the Windows Phone OS). In June 2012, Microsoft announced that it would be entering the PC vendor market for the first time, with the launch of the Microsoft Surface tablet computer.
In the 1990s, critics began to contend that Microsoft used monopolisticbusiness practices and anti-competitive strategies including refusal to deal and tying, put unreasonable restrictions in the use of its software, and used misrepresentative marketing tactics; both the U.S. Department of Justice and European Commission found the company in violation of antitrust laws. On August 20, 2013, Microsoft announced that its CEO, Steve Ballmer, will retire from the company after a successor is chosen.
Microsoft Organizational structure
The following is a sample of the Microsoft Executive Organization Chart published by Directions on Microsoft, an independent research firm focused exclusively on Microsoft strategy & technology. More samples of our content, as well as a list of upcoming articles and reports are also available.
Planning and organization are crucial for an organization to achieve maximum effectiveness and success. Microsoft Company, for instance, has an
organizational structure consisting of board of directors who include Steve Ballmer as chief executive officer (CEO), senior leaders, executives, and technical leaders. Founded in 1975, Microsoft has grown today into a worldwide leader in software and services (Microsoft, 2009). The organizational structure of Microsoft proves to be efficient and effective. A comparison to other organizations demonstrates the importance of an organizational structure and shows commonalities as well as differences in structure.
A further analysis of Microsoft Company explains the impact of organizational functions to the organizational structure. Lastly, the organizational design of Microsoft exhibits the best structure to meet the organizations needs. The organizational structure for Microsoft’s management, functions, and design all play a key role in the success of Microsoft.
The organizational function of any company starts with the employees. Employees are grouped based on knowledge and experience into departments such as marketing, finance, human resources, operations, etc… and is referred to as departmentalization. “Organization structure is comprised of functions, relationships, responsibilities, authorities, and communications of individuals within each department” (Sexton, 1970, p. 23) and is depicted in an organizational chart. An organizational chart identifies the business functions and reporting order.