1.What is meant by effective communication? Why is mutual understanding at the heart of any definition of effective communication?
Communication is the process of transmitting information and understanding from one person to another. Effective communication means a successful transfer of information, meaning, and understanding from a sender to a receiver.
The mutual understanding at the heart is significant point that communication always involves at least two people: a sender to a receiver, it cannot be emphasized too strongly that effective communication includes both sending and receiving information. Understand is a personal matter between people, and is an idea received has the same meaning as the one intended, then we can say that effective communication has taken place.
2.If you were arrested and accused of being a “good communicator,” would there is enough evidence to convict you? Why or why not? There won’t be evidence to convict me of I am a “good communicator,” because even there are a lot of communication barriers faced these days by all. The message intended by the sender is not understood by the receiver in the same terms and sense and thus communication breakdown occurs. It is essential to deal and cope up with these communication barriers so as to ensure smooth and effective communication: 1.Eliminating differences in perception: The organization should ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. It’s the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. There should be proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees. There should be proper trainings conducted for required employees.
2.Use of Simple Language: Use of simple and clear words should be emphasized. Use of ambiguous words and jargons should be avoided. 3.Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier which must be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of noise and then eliminate that source. 4.Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully. There is a difference between “listening” and “hearing”. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker. 5.Emotional State: During communication one should make effective use of body language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered.
For example, if the conveyer of the message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not good. 6.Avoid Information Overload: The managers should know how to prioritize their work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively. 7.Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving negative feedback. The contents of the feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate. 8.Proper Media Selection: The managers should properly select the medium of communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages.
For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as: Memos, Notices etc. 9.Flexibility in meeting the targets: For effective communication in an organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets. 10.Simple Organizational Structure: The organizational structure should not be complex. The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be an ideal span of control within the organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will be the communication.
3.You have been appointed as a floor manager at Target. You will supervise five people in your product area and are responsible for giving the customers great service, keeping the area neat and clean, and keeping management up to date on problems or inventory shortages. How would you apply three of the motivational techniques in the chapter: (a) Hertzberg’s Theory, (b) Expectancy Theory, and (c) Equity Theory to keep your group
performing at a top level?
The motivation-hygiene theory holds management not only must provide hygiene Factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction, but also must provide factors intrinsic to the work itself in order for employees to be satisfied with their jobs. Herzberg argued the job enrichment is required for intrinsic motivation, and that it is a continuous management process, According to Herzberg: •The job should have sufficient challenge to utilize the full ability to the employee. •Employee who demonstrates increasing levels of ability should be given increasing levels of responsibility.
The Expectancy theory states that employee’s motivation is an outcome of how much an individual wants a reward (Valence), the assessment that the likelihood that the effort will lead to expected performance (Expectancy) and the belief that the performance will lead to reward (Instrumentality). the expectancy theory concentrates on the following three relationships: •Effort-performance relationship: What is the likelihood that the individual’s effort be recognized in his performance appraisal? •Performance-reward relationship: It talks about the extent to which the employee believes that getting a good performance appraisal leads to organizational rewards. •Rewards-personal goals relationship: It is all about the attractiveness or appeal of the potential reward to the individual.
The core of the equity theory is the principle of balance or equity. As per this motivation theory, an individual’s motivation level is correlated to his perception of equity, fairness and justice practiced by the management. Higher is individual’s perception of fairness, greater is the motivation level and vice versa. While evaluating fairness, employee compares the job input (in terms of contribution) to outcome (in terms of compensation) and also compares the same with that of another peer of equal cadre/category.
D/I ratio (output-input ratio) is used to make such a comparison. •The theory demonstrates that the individuals are concerned both with their own rewards and also with what others get in their comparison. •Employees expect a fair and equitable return for their contribution to their jobs. •Employees decide what their equitable return should be after comparing their inputs and outcomes with those of their colleagues. •Employees who perceive themselves as being in an inequitable scenario will attempt to reduce the inequity either by distorting inputs and/or outcomes psychologically, by directly altering inputs and/or outputs, or by quitting the organization.