?What is learning? From born to dead, we non-stop to learning, how to sound, walk, study knowledge, even working skill. We learn in our whole life. But what is learning? Why we need to learn? Is it to follow other success person so we need to learn? Gagne(1965) describe learning as four factors, Drive, Stimulus, Response and Reinforcement. For every learning process before it start there are also have a reason to basic on, whatever we are learning a knowledge or a skill. And this is the factor of drive, it can improve you to want to learn.
It can be a basic need or other drive. For example, a baby learning how to speak, it can describe as a basic need drive, because the baby want to let his mother father to know what his want, and speak is the most effective and efficient way to achieve, thats why the baby go to learn. In stimulus factor of Gagne theory, learner must be stimulated by the learning process, because some of stimulus can make the learner to drew some nature response, it can help them to learn more effect and efficient.
And when the learner in the learning process, they will get some individual stimulus, that is the feel of the new thing of you learn. When the stimulus was occur on the learner, they will take a response such as increased skills and knowledge. This stage must occur after process of drive and stimulus. The last factor is reinforcement, when the learner taking some new skill or knowledge, those thing may forget quickly, because we also can not remember now thing hardly for first time, that’s why we need to practice to reinforcement the new skill or knowledge.
In the process on the learning, there have many variable element, such as what type of the learner are, what the way are adopt to learn, those variable will influence the result of the learning process. Below we will talking about those variable, how those influence the result. Learning styles encompass a series of theories suggesting systematic differences in individuals’ natural or habitual pattern of acquiring and processing information in learning situations. A core concept is that individuals differ in how they learn.
The idea of individualized learning styles originated in the 1970s, and has greatly influenced education. Proponents of the use of learning styles in education recommend that teachers assess the learning styles of their students and adapt their classroom methods to best fit each student’s learning style. Although there is ample evidence that individuals express preferences for how they prefer to receive information, few studies have found any validity in using learning styles in education. Critics say there is no evidence that identifying an individual student’s learning style produces better outcomes.
There is evidence of empirical and pedagogical problems related to the use of learning tasks to‘correspond to differences in a one-to-one fashion. ’Well-designed studies contradict the widespread “meshing hypothesis”, that a student will learn best if taught in a method deemed appropriate for the student’s learning style. Learning styles are a popular concept in psychology and education that are intended to identify how people learn best. The popularity of this concept grew dramatically during the 1970s and 1980s, despite the evidence suggesting that personal learning preferences have no actual influence on learning results.
While the existing research has found that matching teaching methods to learning styles had no influence on educational outcomes, the concept of learning styles remains extremely popular. There are many different ways of categorizing learning styles including Kolb’s model and the Jungian learning styles. Neil Fleming’s VARK model is one of the most popular representations. In 1987, Fleming developed an inventory designed to help students and others learn more about their individual learning preferences. David A. Kolb’s model is based on the Experiential learning Theory, as explained in his book Experiential Learning.
The ELT model outlines two related approaches toward grasping experience: Concrete Experience and Abstract Conceptualization, as well as two related approaches toward transforming experience: Reflective Observation and Active Experimentation. According to Kolb’s model, the ideal learning process engages all four of these modes in response to situational demands. In order for learning to be effective, all four of these approaches must be incorporated. As individuals attempt to use all four approaches, however, they tend to develop strengths in one experience-grasping approach and one experience-transforming approach.
The resulting learning styles are combinations of the individual’s preferred approaches. For type of the learner, it can classification as 16 different type, as Serialist vs. Holist, Controlled vs. Impulsive, Dependant vs. Independent, Mature vs. Immature, Structured vs. Unstructured, Familiar vs. Unfamiliar, Instructional vs. Experimental, Deep learning vs. Surface learning. To identify what type the learner are, we can uses some of test to calculate it, and this is also a important step, because different type of learner will have stimulus by different learning way.
As the way of learning, they were through words, questions, through images, pictures and abstract representations , through music and rhythm, through movements or physical activities, through social interaction and through independence or self-interaction. Those analysis by Gardner, in 1999. For suggest learner to used different way to learn, Riding (1997) to publish that, Cognitive Style, that’s mean an individual’s consistent preferences for particular ways of gathering, processing and storing information and experiences. It is a fusion of methods of thinking and of personality.
And he also also warned about the possibility of confusing style with ability in 1997. Those theory bring out one mine idea that everyone who before go to learn, they should to find out what kind of they are, and what method are suitable for first, that is the most important. But this is not a easily even for an experience teacher, that’s why teacher should have a reliable and valid instrument, because some characteristics are not discernable, by (Beaty 1986; Dunn, Dunn, and Price 1977; Marcus 1977 How to Implement and Supervise a Learning Style Program, P. 9).
“Cognitive Style” and “learning style” two-oriented theories and models mostly in the late twentieth century (1950) proposed that the two are very similar at first glance, very confusing. Jonassen & Grabowski (1993) explain the main difference between the two is that “learning styles” were analyzed only for the learner preferences, without taking into consideration the actual ability of learners. To calculate the type of the learner are, there have few popular method to measure Cognitive Style, and there usually will identify as two big type of style. (Riding,1997 ). They are ‘wholist-analytical(WA)’ and ‘verbaliser-imager(VI) type.
The wholist-analytical group are concerned with whether the individual processes and organizes data as a whole or in a piecemeal fashion and the verbaliser-imager group are concerned with whether the individual normally represents information in their memory as pictures or as words during the process of thinking. We can use Belbin test, MBTI test, and VARK Questionnaire test VARK Questionnaire test is a method to analysis a person learning style, basic on their gift and ability, VARK model as well as other learning style theories has been questioned and criticized extensively.
One large scale look at learning style models suggested that the instruments designed to assess individual learning styles were questionable, while other critics have suggested that labeling students as having one specific learning style can actually be a hindrance to learning. Despite the criticism and lack of empirical support, the VARK model remains fairly popular among both students and educators. Many students immediately recognize that they are drawn to a particular learning style. Others may find that their learning preferences lie somewhere in the middle.
For example, a student might feel that both visual and auditory learning is the most appealing. While aligning teaching strategies to learning styles may or may not be effective, students might find that understanding their own learning preferences can be helpful. For example, if you know that visual learning appeals to you most, using visual study strategies in conjunction with other learning methods might help you better remember the information you are studying – or at the very least make studying more enjoyable. So what happens if no single learning preference calls out to you?
What if you change preferences based on the situation or the type of information you are learning? In such instances, you probably have what is known as a multimodal style. For example, you might rely on your reading and writing preferences when you are dealing with a class that requires a great deal of book reading and note-taking, such as a history of psychology course. During an art class, you might depend more on your visual and kinesthetic preferences as you take in pictorial information and learn new techniques.
There have four item to take a mark, Visual, Aural, Read and Kinesthetic. Visual learner are good at receive of image information some picture as charts, diagrams. illustrations, notes, and videos are all let visual learners easily to remember the information . People who prefer this type of learning would rather see information presented in a visual rather than in written form. Aural (or auditory) learners is good to learning by use of there ears . They more perfer to get a good part out of lectures and are good at remembering speech by people of there mouth.
Reading and writing learners more likely to get information through as words. Learning source that are primarily text-based are strongly preferred by these learners. Kinesthetic (or tactile) learners learn best by touching and doing. Hands-on experience is important to kinesthetic learners. Of the outcome of my test of doing VARK test, my result are Visual: 5, Aural: 9 , Read/Write: 2, Kinesthetic: 9, that is mean that im good at aural and kinesthetic. Those of sound and touching thing and resource are effect for me to learning, those are stimulate way for me.
That’s mean listing the teacher told and feel the new thing. Belbin test is a analysis method of calculate role of team of a person, this develop by Dr. Meredith Belbin in Cambridge, UK. Its main function are help tester to know himself, from self-character to other people idea of himself. And calculate the tester career development. It can understand the member of the team person working style quickly. Then you can know how to communicate with, and make the performance be more efficient and effect.
And the nine type is Shaper (SH), Implementer (IMP), Completer-Finisher (CF), Coordinator (CO), Team Worker (TW), Resource Investigator (RI), Plant (PL), Monitor-Evaluator (ME) and Specialist (SP). As my know of myself, I will describe myself as Implementer (IMP), because its characteristic are Implementers are the people who get things done. They turn the team’s ideas and concepts into practical actions and plans. They are typically conservative, disciplined people who work systematically and efficiently and are very well organized. These are the people who you can count on to get the job done.
On the downside, Implementers may be inflexible and can be somewhat resistant to change. For my target career as a business administrative, this is suitable for of the role of the Implementer (IMP). MMDI test, full name is Myers Briggs Type Indicator, this test let character describe as sixteen type, this sixteen type include all human behavior, they are 1)ESTJ male chauvinism 2)ESTP challenge 3)ESFJ master 4)ESFP show off 5)ENTJ general 6)ENTP inventor 7)ENFJ educationalist 8)ENFP reporter 9)ISTJ public servant 10)ISTP adventure 11)ISFJ take care 12)ISFP art 13)INTJ professional 14)INTP scholar 15)INFJ author 16)INFP philosopher.
Those of them also have benefit and weak point and no one is the best. When I finish the test, I know that im the type of the ESFJ master adventure one, this is different between I estimate one as ESTP challenge one, therefore, ESFJ as Enthusiastic, talkative, popular, responsible natural collaborators, active member of the committee. May be longer than the creation of a harmonious and harmony. Often doing good to others.
Encouragement and praise when you get the best work. The main interest lies in those things that have a direct and significant impact on people’s lives. In the analysis, ESFJ is suitable of occupation such as Housekeeping Nurse, Administration, Teachers, Family Physicians, Clergy or other religious workers Office Manager, Counselor, Accountant, Administrative Assistant, this is matching with my target career as administrative.