The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
What is K to 12?
K to 12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Kindergarten refers to the 5-year old cohort that takes a standardized kinder curriculum. Elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education Secondary education refers to high school.
How are we planning to implement the K to 12 program?
After considering various proposals and studies, the model that is currently being proposed by DepEd is the K-6-4-2 Model. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. Features of K 6-4-2
(1) Kindergarten and 12 years of quality basic education is a right of every Filipino, therefore they must be and will be provided by government and will be free. (2) Those who go through the 12 years cycle will get an elementary diploma (6 years), a junior high school diploma (4 years), and a senior high school diploma (2 years). (3) A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required for entry into tertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or seven years from now).
An open and consultative process will be adopted in the development and implementation of K to 12. Change is two-fold: (a) curriculum enhancement and (b) transition management.
What is Senior High School?
2 years of in-depth specialization for students depending on the occupation/career track they wish to pursue Skills and competencies relevant to the job market
The 2 years of senior HS intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. The curriculum will allow specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship.
What is the proposed implementation plan of DepEd?
Phases of Implementation:
(1) Universal kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012. (2) DepEd will begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013. (3) The enhanced 12-year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY 2012-2013. (4) Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be the first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 2016-2017. Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts, music, tech-voch..etc)
In implementing the K-6-4-2 proposal, DepEd will take into account the issues and concerns of all stakeholders, including the high school graduates before 2016. This will be done through regional consultations to begin early 2011. The mechanics and other details of the transition plan will be threshed out with HEIs in coordination with CHED, TESDA and other critical stakeholders.
Why add two more years?
To decongest and enhance the basic education curriculum
To provide better quality education for all
The Philippines is the only remaining country in Asia with a 10-year basic education program K to 12 is not new. The proposal to expand the basic education dates back to 1925. Studies in the Philippines have shown that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7.5%. Studies validate that improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by 2% to 2.2%. Minus 2 instead of plus 2 for those families who cannot afford a college education but still wish to have their children find a good paying job.
Right now, parents spend for at least 4 years of college to have an employable child. In our model, parents will not pay for 2 years of basic education that will give them an employable child. In effect, we are saving parents 2 years of expenses. The plan is not “Plus 2 years before graduation” but “Minus 2 years before work To inspire a shift in attitude that completion of high school education is more than just preparation for college but can be sufficient for a gainful employment or career.
How much will this cost?
The immediate cost for the program will not be needed until 2016 when the first year of the two additional years is implemented. Meanwhile, we will continue to close the resource gaps in basic education – the President ordered DepEd to its close resource gaps in 2 years. At this time, we estimate the total funding requirement to procure all needed resources at P150 billion for: 152,569 new classrooms
103,599 more teachers
95.6 million more books
13.2 million seats
What will society gain from K to 12
K to 12 will facilitate an accelerated economic growth.
K to 12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society. Are private schools obliged to follow?
While we enjoy the support of private school associations, we are yet to discuss with them the implementation of the program. Where are we at now? Insufficient mastery of basic competencies is common due to a congested curriculum. The 12 year curriculum is being delivered in 10 years. High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship / employment. Other countries view
the 10-year education cycle as insufficient. K to 12 Education Vision
Graduates of Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program will:
Acquire mastery of basic competencies.
Be more emotionally mature.
Be socially aware, pro-active, involved in public and civic affairs. Be adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. Be legally employable with potential for better earnings.
Be globally competitive. Every graduate of the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and one’s self. Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start schooling and are given the means to slowly adjust to formal education.
Research shows that children who underwent Kindergarten have better completion rates than those who did not. Children who complete a standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary education. Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child. The early years of a human being, from 0 to 6 years, are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size..[Ref: K to 12 Toolkit] In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue.
Making the Curriculum Relevant to Learners (Contextualization and Enhancement)
Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations are based on local culture, history, and reality. This makes the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand. Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through continuity and consistency across all levels and subjects. Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are included in the enhanced curriculum. Building Proficiency through Language (Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education)
Students are able to learn best through their first language, their Mother Tongue (MT). Twelve (12) MT languages have been introduced for SY 2012-2013: Bahasa Sug, Bikol, Cebuano, Chabacano, Hiligaynon, Iloko, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Meranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray. Other local languages will be added in succeeding school years. Aside from the Mother Tongue, English and Filipino are taught as subjects starting Grade 1, with a focus on oral fluency. From Grades 4 to 6, English and Filipino are gradually introduced as languages of instruction. Both will become primary languages of instruction in Junior High School (JHS) and Senior High School (SHS). After Grade 1, every student can read in his or her Mother Tongue. Learning in Mother Tongue also serves as the foundation for students to learn Filipino and English easily. Ensuring Integrated and Seamless Learning (Spiral Progression)
Subjects are taught from the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels in spiral progression. As early as elementary, students gain knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry, Earth Science, Chemistry, and Algebra. This ensures a mastery of knowledge and skills after each level. For example, currently in High School, Biology is taught in 2nd Year, Chemistry in 3rd Year, and Physics in 4th Year. In K to 12, these subjects are connected and integrated from Grades 7 to 10. This same method is used in other Learning Areas like Math. Gearing Up for the Future (Senior High School)
Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. SHS subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or specific Tracks. CORE CURRICULUM
There are seven Learning Areas under the Core Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature, Communication, Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. Current content from some General Education subjects are embedded in the SHS curriculum. TRACKS
Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes three strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education, Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM). Students undergo immersion, which may include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them relevant exposure and actual experience in their chosen track. TVET (TECHNICAL VOCATIONAL EDUCATION & TRAINING) NATIONAL CERTIFICATE
After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC) or a National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade. MODELING BEST PRACTICES FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL
In SY 2012-2013, there are 33 public high schools, public technical-vocational high schools, and higher education institutions (HEIs) that have implemented Grade 11. This is a Research and Design (R&D) program to simulate different aspects of Senior High School in preparation for full nationwide implementation in SY 2016-2017. Modeling programs offered by these schools are based on students’ interests, community needs, and their respective capacities. NURTURING THE HOLISTICALLY DEVELOPED FILIPINO (COLLEGE AND LIVELIHOOD READINESS, 21ST CENTURY SKILLS) After going through Kindergarten, the enhanced Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a specialized Senior High program, every K to 12 graduate will be ready to go into different paths – may it be further education, employment, or entrepreneurship. Every graduate will be equipped with:
Information, media and technology skills,
Learning and innovation skills,
Effective communication skills, and
Life and career skills.