Due to the ineffective leadership, the nation states of Frances, England and Spain utilized aggressive methods to rebuild their governments in the fifteenth century. This was accomplished though the revival of the monarchy and the unification of nations. The French leaders led their people and nation states to success. Charles VII, a sovereign viewed as weak and frail, proved himself a powerful leader. Charles (reigned from 1422-1461) established peace between groups fighting a civil war and rid the lands (minus Calais) of the English.
In addition to introducing taxes and creating the first permanent army, he reorganized the royal council and gave greater influence to lawyers and bankers. His son Louis XI (reigned from 1461-1483) built upon the army to conquer Burgundy and to control noble’s separate militias. Louis XII (reigned from 1498-1515) marriage added Brittany to the French lands. Lastly Francis I signed the Concordat of Bologna which allowed the King to choose bishops and abbots; and the Pope to collect the first years income of new bishops and abbots.
The English had their fair share of problems. Population was declining and the aristocracy continued to rule. The War of Roses caused a sharp decline in agriculture, trade and industry. Leaders such as Edmond IV (1461- 1483) focused on diplomatic relations instead of wars. Because of this the monarchy was not dependent upon Parliament of funds. The English monarchy strove to deny the nobility power and to focus on order and law at a local level. Henry VIII distrust of the nobility led him to choose small landowners and men trained in law to be part the royal council.
The royal council was involved with the Court Star of Chamber. This court prevented the aristocracy from causing them, by, using torture, and by having no jury. Contrary to the aforementioned, Henry VII left a legacy of peace, and wealth. Unlike England and France, Spain was not a unified nation state. It was made up of many independent kingdoms. Each consisting of its own parliament, laws, courts, taxes and currency. Husband and wife rulers, Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castie, ideals were similar to those of Franc and England.
They exchanged nobles and therefore decreased their power from the royal council. The council and government boards consisted of men who were trained in Roman law. Ferinand and Isabella appointed bishops in Spain and in America. Within their reign, Granada and Navarre became incorporated into their kingdom. Jews were an issue that majority of the Spanish did not want incorporated into their kingdom. The Jews settled in Spain after they were expelled from France and England. The Spanish resented the Jewish for their intelligence, wealth, and influence.
The Jewish were people blamed for the Black Death and 40% of the Jewish population was put to death or forced to convert. They were called conversos or New Christians. Jews and New Christians were very influential but their conversions were questioned. It was said that once a Jew, always a Jew and therefore in 1492 all practicing Jews were expelled from Spain. Ferinand and Isabella demanded absolute religious orthodoxy and purity of blood The Spanish national state rested on marital politics as well as military victories and religious courts.
——————————————– [ 1 ]. Mckay et al. , A History of Western Society Tenth Addition Boston: (Bedford/St. Martins, 2008) [ 2 ]. Mckay et al. , A History of Western Society Tenth Addition Boston: (Bedford/St. Martins, 2008) [ 3 ]. Mckay et al. , A History of Western Society Tenth Addition Boston: (Bedford/St. Martins, 2008) [ 4 ]. Mckay et al. , A History of Western Society Tenth Addition Boston: (Bedford/St. Martins, 2008).
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