1.1 Explain in your own words what the welfare requirements are. The welfare requirements cover many areas.
We protect the children by having policies and procedures for safeguarding children. Practitioners are attending safeguarding courses to understand and know how to respond appropriately to signs of abuse. Ofsted is informed if any form of abuse was noticed in the nursery or at home. People working with children must be able to fulfil the requirements of their role. Every person employed working with children must have a recent CRB to make sure the suitable people are employed for the role. Staff must not consume alcohol or any other substances that can affect their abilities. A setting must have a great amount of level 3 qualified people; on the setting there must be first aid trained practitioners. Rooms need to be in ratio at all times to ensure the children’s safety. A key person needs to be given to each child. They need to ensure that all the children are cared for and their profile folders are up to date and planned after the children’s interests.
A key person is a named member of staff with responsibilities for a small group of children who helps those children to feel safe and cared for. In our nursery we refer to the key person as a mentor- a member of staff who helps a child to develop in a way that maximises the individual child’s needs, talents, interests and abilities and truly earns the respect of their mentor children through leading by example. Mentors are responsible for planning, observation and assessment for each of their mentor children. A setting must have policies and procedures in place for administering medicine to the children; medicine needs to be prescribed, a written permission needs to be in place, a written record needs to be kept when administering a medicine. A behaviour management policy should be in place for all the nurseries. Risk assessments must be carried out on a daily basis to make sure children are kept safe.
1.2 Explain who you report concerns about health and safety or safeguarding to within your setting. In our nursery it runs a policy called the whistleblowing policy. Whistleblowing occurs when a person raises a concern about dangerous, illegal activity or any wrong doing within the setting. Our nursery has issued this policy to facilitate the reporting of any reasonable suspicion we may have about malpractice or unlawful conduct. If we are aware of malpractice or we believe it is likely to occur we should let the nursery know so they can investigate. Someone raising a concern under this policy is not risking in losing their job. If we have a concern about malpractice we should contact the Line Manager or the Principal. If we believe that having raised our concern and the matter hasn’t been addressed we should contact a Regional Principal, Head of Operations, the HR Manager, or a Director. We can raise our concern orally (although this should be confirmed in writing as well) or in writing. When raising a concern we must state that we are using the whistleblowing policy and if we wish our identity to be kept confidential.
2.2 Tell me how you ensure children’s safety as they arrive, at the end of the session/day and when you go off site. Before the children arrive at the nursery we must carry out a morning risk assessment. At the beginning of every morning I need to do a morning risk assessment that includes checking the room if everything is safe for the children to be in. I need to look around the room to make sure there are no cleaning materials left by the cleaners, or to check if there are no unused staples from the board or on the floors, to check if the room is clear of plastic bags, if there are no hanging cables around the room, if the shelves are not overloaded and that the fire extinguisher is available. At the end of the day I need to implement an afternoon risk assessment. I need to check if all the windows are locked, if all the electrical equipment is unplugged, if all the lights are off, I need to stock up the nappy changing area with gloves, blue aprons, paper rolls.
I need to check if all the resources are put away in the garden and nothing is left outside and the sand pit lid needs to be on. Every time we take the children in the garden we need to implement a garden risk assessment. I need to check the grass area for hazards, the climbing frame, the gardening area, the mud pit, and the sandpit if it’s clean. We ensure children safety by signing every child in when they enter the room and at the end of the day sign them out; we have a signing out form for the parents or carers to sign when they pick up. If an unknown person comes to collect a child and is not recognised by any of the members of staff, this needs to be checked at reception if a password has been given; our nursery is using the password policy; when a new person will collect a child then he needs have a password agreed by the parents and management, so he can enter the premises. A person that is not recognised by any of the members of staff, is not present on the ID form on a photo at reception and has no password is not able to enter the premises and collect a child.
We carry out headcounts every 10 minutes to make sure all the children are present. We ensure children’s safety off site by: taking pictures of every child before leaving the premises, take all the children’s parents contact numbers, taking first aid bag, water, nappies, wipes, gloves, aprons, nappy sacks to avoid the spread of infections, wrist straps if children are old enough to walk. If we are taking children with allergies on a trip we need to make sure that the child’s medication and adrenalin injections are taken. When we go off site we need to have a supernumerary person with us, the members of staff needs to be first aid trained, and a safeguarding officer needs to be present. And children need to be supervised at all times and not let them climb on very high climbing equipment.
2.4 Tell me about the space requirements and adult: child ratios you have at your setting and explain why the minimum requirements are necessary. It’s important to have sufficient staff in place to ensure the safety of the children and that the adults are suitable to undertake these tasks. The ratios in my setting are: for children under the age of two, there must be 1 member of staff for every 3 children; for children aged 2 years old there must be 1 member of staff for every 4 children; for children aged 3 or above there must be a member of staff for every 8 children. It is really important to follow the ratio so we make sure the children receive the right amount of support. The minimum requirements are necessary to ensure that children have the right space to learn to their full capacity. It is really important to the size of the room and to know how many children the room can take. For example we can’t put 20 children in a room that can take only 12; the risk of accident is much higher and children can’t learn to their full capacity in an overcrowded room.
3.1 Health and wellbeing is not just about safety and risk management it is all about how you care for the children. Tell me how you do this in your setting. We need to care for children physically as well; good hygiene is very important in a child’s development. The children need to wash their hands and faces during the day, we need to apply cream for children that need it, we need to ensure that their hair is tied up to avoid getting into their eyes and into their food. We need to look after the children’s skin as well; we need to make sure the nappies are changed very often, cream used if needed and we need to do it carefully to avoid infection by wearing an apron and gloves.
We need to wash or wipe their sweat off their bodies regularly to avoid sore areas and inflammation. We need to show the children how to wash hands, use soap carefully and praise them well; we need to ensure the flannels or wipes that we use for face wiping are used only once. We need to use recommended product if children have allergies or skin conditions such as eczema. The role of a mentor is very important in a child’s life. A mentor is a member of staff with responsibilities for a small group of children to help them feel safe and cared for. The mentor helps a child develop in a way that maximises the child’s needs, talents, interests and abilities.
3.2 Explain the role of other professionals you work with in your setting and how this impacts on children’s health and wellbeing. There are many workers in my setting. There are many nursery nurses in the setting that are looking after the children and are in charge of the children’s profile folders and they will make sure everything is planned after the children’s interests. There are senior mentors that are in charge of the rooms, each room must have a senior mentor that supports our nursery nurses. There is some staff that work only part tine that are called bank staff. They are in the nursery to support us and be in ratio when we need to take our lunch break. We have SENCO workers that have a great impact on children’s development. A SENCO worker is a member of staff that will give additional support for children with special needs and will work hand in hand with parents and teachers.
4.3 Provide a reflective account of how to prepare and store food, formula and breast milk according to health and safety guidelines. We need to make sure bottles are clean and sterilised before every feeding. The child’s formula milk is prepared by mixing water and the appropriate amount of formula powder and consumed immediately. We should not store formula milk for any length of time as it may be unsafe. This is because formula milk powder is not sterile and when mixed into a solution may allow bacteria to grow if not consumed immediately. We should dispose of any surplus of formula milk because it is unsafe to use it again. In my setting the formula powder milk is used for only one month after opening. After one month we need to dispose of it because it is not safe for the children to drink it anymore. The breast milk can be stored in a number of ways: at room temperature for no longer than 6 hours, in a fridge for up to five days, in a fridge’s freezer compartment for two weeks or in a home freezer for up to six months.
The food must be cooked and stored in a clean environment to reduce the risk of food poisoning. The food must not be consumed or served to the children if it’ out of date. In my setting there is a separate fridge for storing dairy and meat. Meat is kept in sealed containers on the bottom shelf of the fridge so they can’t touch or drip on other foods. It’s very important to prepare food safely, to help stop harmful bacteria from spreading and growing. Hands can easily spread bacteria around the kitchen and onto food so it’s very important to wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before starting to prepare food, after touching raw meat, after going to the toilet, after touching bins or pets. It’s very important to make sure the worktops, kitchen utensils and chopping boards are clean. The kitchen can be provided with colour coded chopping boards.
5.1 Identify balanced meals, snacks and drinks for children in their early years, following current government guidance on nutritional needs. To ensure a child’s balanced diet we need to follow the basic nutritional requirements. In our setting we provide a meat course and a vegetarian course every day and the food that we serve is organic. The right foods for a balanced diet are: potatoes and cereals that include high energy foods like pasta, rice, potatoes, bread; the milk and dairy product are important in a child’s diet because it contains protein for the healthy working of the nervous system and it’s a rich source of calcium for forming healthy bones and teeth.
The fruits and vegetables have a strong place in a child’s diet. Fruits and vegetables provide rich sources of vitamins and minerals; the fibre found in the fruits and in the vegetables helps digestion and can prevent bowel problems such as constipation. The citrus fruits have high vitamin C that helps children have a healthy skin and helps blood formation. In the children’s diet we need to find space for the high protein foods such as: meat, fish, eggs, nuts and seeds; they contain iron and help a healthy blood formation. The only drink that we serve is water and is available at all times at the water station.
5.2 Recognise why it is important to follow carer’s instructions in respect of their child’s food allergies or intolerances. It’s really important to follow the parents or carer’s instructions regarding their child’s allergies and intolerances. Some children might not be able to eat different types of food like milk, eggs, nuts because their body react to them and intolerance can cause children to develop health problems. For children with allergies it can be fatal, their body can go into anaphylactic shock, which causes throat to swell and can cause breathing difficulty. The reaction might be fatal if emergency treatment is not given immediately. 5.3 Identify the dietary requirements of different cultural or religious groups. When a child is enrolled in the nursery the child care provider need to ask parents about food needs, family eating patterns and about any cultural or religious preferences. As we have the traffic light system in our nursery all the children have their own placemats. Colour green for children that can eat everything, yellow for preferences and red for allergies. The yellow placemats are done specially for children that have cultural or religious preferences.
A dietary requirement is filled in every morning to let kitchen staff know that the children with special preferences will attend the nursery that day. We need to work together with parents to ensure that children with special dietary needs receive appropriate food. For example in my setting I have Jewish children that can’t eat pork or mix meat with dairy. It depends of the parent preference and of how they follow the religion. For example in the room that I work in I have Jewish children that can mix the meat with dairy and there are children that can’t. There is another child that is Muslim and we have been asked by the parents to not serve him pork.
We are a pork free nursery so we explained the parent that a yellow placemat won’t be needed because we don’t serve pork in the nursery. There are some Muslim children in the nursery that are vegetarians. Their parents chose that the child should not be served meat in the nursery because we don’t provide halal meat. So the child will have a yellow placemat and served vegetarian meals only. There are different religions that avoid different types of food because of their beliefs; like Hindu people don’t eat beef, eggs, white fish and don’t drink alcohol; Buddhist people don’t eat chicken, lamb, pork, beef, shellfish and don’t consume alcohol.
5.4 Describe methods of educating children and adults in effective food management. As early years practitioners we have to provide healthy and nutritionally appropriate food for the children that we care for. When planning meals for children, there are several things to take into consideration to ensure that meals contain sufficient nutrients and calories. We need to look at the food labels to see how much salt, sugar, calories and fat are in the foods and weather the foods are rich in nutrients. Giving children healthy food is just a part of encouraging children to eat healthy. We need to be aware of how much food the children needs over the day. Too much food can make the child gain weight and too little food can make the child lose weight and become undernourished. Portion control is important to ensure the child is having the correct amount of food. Parents are advised early on if their child’s weight becomes an issue.
There are a lot of helpful websites and leaflets that offer parents help to understand what a healthy weight is for a child’s height. A good plan for helping parents know how much food does a child needs is to prepare a chart or a table about each day’s food and work out its overall calorie content using food labels. Parents should not force their children to eat types of food that the child refuses to eat. This is how children can develop food phobias. Parents can encourage their children to join in, in preparing the food. Children would be more likely to try new foods if they helped in the preparation. We have set up an activity at my setting. It was about eating healthy and making fruit kebabs. There was a child that refused to eat fruits since he joined the nursery. We encouraged them to wash the fruits, to use a knife to cut the fruits and slowly put the fruits on the stick. That child got so excited that he was able to wash the fruits, cut them and do all the work by himself that he got very interested in how the fruit kebab tastes like. The thing that he did everything by himself made him want to eat the fruits.
6.2 Explain the regulations concerning management of medicines and how these are interpreted in the work setting. Medicine needs to be kept far from children’s reach. The setting must provide a fridge used specially for medicine that needs to be kept in the fridge like antibiotics, or a first aid box; for example the setting that I work in has a special fridge for medicine, kept in the manager’s office and can’t be reached without the managers permission, and a box for medicine that doesn’t need to be kept in the fridge, is kept at nursery’s reception away from children’s and strangers reach. Every nursery should have a clear policy that is understood and accepted by staff, to make sure children receive proper care in a setting. The parents need to have access to the nursery’s policies through prospects or emails or through other information for parents. The manager has the responsibility to share the policy. All the medicines taken to the nursery should be prescribed by a doctor or pharmacist, and should always be provided in the original container that includes the prescriber’s instructions for administration and dosage.
Nurseries should never accept medicine, that have been removed from the original package and practitioners should never change the dosage of the medicine. In the nursery that I work in we have a strict medication policy; every medication given to us by the parent needs to be prescribed by the doctor, a medication form needs to be filled and signed by the parent; on the medication form parents needs to provide us with information about the dosage of the medicine and the time that needs to be administered. The medicine can be given to the child only by a room leader or a member of management team; a witness is needed to make sure the right medicine and the right dosage has been given to the child. The medication form needs to be signed by the person administering the medicine and by the person witnessing. The medicine needs to be taken home every day when collecting the child. A form must be signed by parents, when a child starts nursery if they agree us to give the child medicine (Calpol) in case of child having temperature.
If a child has very high temperature in the nursery, a member of team needs to call a parent to inform them and check with them in case medicine has been administered to the child in the last 4 hours and to check if medicine can be administered to the child. If the temperature hasn’t dropped within 30 minutes the child needs to be collected by the parent or career. When a child suffering from allergies joins the nursery, the parents need to provide a note from the doctor containing the types of the allergies suffered by the child. A health care plan must be in place for every child suffering from allergies. The kitchen staff must be informed about it and provided with a copy of the health care plan. Every morning a dietary requirement sheet must be filled in to let the kitchen chef know how many children are present in the room and how much food she needs to provide the children. The names and the types of the allergies that the children is suffering of, must be written down clearly so the chef doesn’t make any mistakes because this can be followed by very bad circumstances.
The food coming from the kitchen for the children with allergies needs to be prepared separately from the rest of the food and needs to come on a different plate (red plate) clearly labelled with the child’s name. As our nursery follows the traffic light system with green placemats for children that are able to eat everything, yellow for children with food preferences, and red for children with allergies. The food consumed by a child suffering from allergies MUST come clearly labelled in a red plate ONLY. The child needs to be supervised while eating in case they pick up food from the floor. A child suffering from allergies must have medicine and adrenaline injections with medication forms filled in and signed by the parents. Staff must be first aid trained so they can administer the injection in case the injection is needed. 6.3 Explain how to protect yourself when lifting and handling children and equipment in the work setting.
When lifting something we need to plan the lift before we do it. When we do a long lift we can consider resting the load midway on a table. We need to keep the load as close to the body as possible, we need to try to slide it towards our body before trying to lift it; we need to adopt a stable position where the feet should be apart with one leg slightly forward to maintain balance. We need to get a good hold of the load and where possible the load should be hugged as close as possible to the body because this will make the lifting better then gripping it tightly with hands only.
We need to start the lift in a good posture; at the start of the lift, slight bending of the back, hips and knees is preferable to fully flexing the back. We should not flex our backs any further while lifting. This can happen if the legs begin to straighten before starting to raise the load. We need to avoid twisting our backs or leaning sideways, especially if the back is bent. We need to keep our heads up when handling, we need to move slowly and smoothly to avoid injury. We should not lift more than can be easily managed. There is a big difference between what we can lift and what we can safely lift.