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Web based applications for an online dictionary Essay

We are rapidly constructing a broad network infrastructure for moving information across national boundaries through internet, but there is much to be done before linguistic barriers can be surmounted as effectively with cross language translation web based online dictionary. Users seeking information from a digital library could benefit from the ability to query large collections once with a single language, even when more than one language is present in the collection. If the information they locate is not obtainable in a language that they can read, some form of translation will be needed.

At present, multilingual thesauri such as EUROVOC help to address this challenge by facilitating controlled vocabulary search with terms from several languages, and services such as INSPEC generate English abstracts for documents in other languages. On the other hand, support for free text searching across languages is not yet broadly organized and fully automatic machine translation is currently neither suitably fast nor satisfactorily accurate to effectively support interactive cross-language information seeking.

As an active and rapidly growing research community coalesced around these shortcomings we have designed a web based dictionary tool for cross language translations related to various studies and applying the techniques drawn from several fields particularly information retrieval and natural language processing to provide access to large multilingual collections on the internet. Abstract

This research study presents a neural network & web-based decision support system (DSS) for cross-language translation and set up a dictionary database that can be used to search-sentence into another language, which is adaptable to the needs of database where the terms and words are actually or already been translated and connected to each other via a neural network linguistically. The user of this database will not just want to search in one language at the time maybe in 2 languages simultaneously and find the meaning efficiently.

What is needed in this is a complex network of software programming that recognizes not the links but the also the content of the word / phrase / document and then delivers a search result according to the content. As the Internet growth is rapid in these days with many information technology software packages this online dictionary database renders higher importance of quality-of-information. This dictionary database can be used for any question to be translated / the content is indexed across several languages consequently the question is being asked across any 2 / more languages.

With a linguistical database there is no problem with the search results where the translations are always sharp and always shows one solution for a translation of a word from one language to another. The common translation database shows several translations of a common word as shown in the example given below. Examples: The translation of the English meaning “Automobile” to German may have the following results; Automobile / Auto – Kraftfahrzeug / Motorfahrzeug / Personenkraftwagen / PKW, etc.

The translation of the abbreviated term “IT” to German may show the following results; ‘IT’ – Informatik, EDV, Elektronische Datenverarbeitung, etc. A cross language translator database with synonym software will help to place a word / a phrase / a document or a search term into context (Verschlagwortung) to find the translated answer and also very helpful for more than just a one-on-one translation. Project Specification: This web based dictionary was made with a complex set of software programs that was designed for cross language translations.

Cross-language search is used to translate a search term or a search-sentence into another language with the aid of Neural Network. WordNet® is a large lexical database of English that was developed under the direction of George A. Miller. Several forms of nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. These ‘Synsets’ are interlinked by means of conceptual-semantic and lexical relations.

The ensuing network of meaningfully related words and concept can be navigated with the browser. WordNet used in this project was downloaded and its structures serve as a useful tool for computational linguistics and natural language processing. Neural networks is an information processing system composed of a large number of highly interconnected processing elements that aids with its remarkable ability to derives the translation for the meaning of a word / sentence / document from complicated or imprecise data that was used to extract meanings.

It is a real time operation system where the computations may be carried out in parallel, and special hardware devices that are being designed and manufactured to take advantage of this capability. In order to train a neural network to perform some task (as with my research for a web based dictionary) the system should be adjusted to the weights of each unit in such a way that the error between the desired output and the actual output is reduced.

This process involves the neural network to compute the error derivative of the weights (EW) and calculate how the error changes as each weight is increased or decreased slightly. The back propagation algorithm is the most commonly used method for determining the EW. Many software sources were used to accompany the process of the web based dictionary server. The most important software used here are Visual Studio 2008 and the . NET Framework 3. 5, ASP . NET, Ajax, C#, MS SQL 2005 database for WordNet and dictionary data, MS IIS Server 6.

0 (local), WordNet MS SQL database from the hosting source link https://discountasp. net/ and a UK domain name was used for the web based online dictionary from http://www. ukreg. com/ Problem tackled in this project The artificial neural network models utilized in this module lies in the fact that they can be used to infer a function from observations. This was principally useful in applications where the complexity of the data or task makes the design of such a function by hand unfeasible.

For example there are online dictionary web based sources where plenty of free English language words can be found based on almost any other language possible but not so many of other languages especially of a smaller group of languages to other smaller group of languages. Using the cross language web based online dictionary such problems can be easily tackled to develop a system that could use English as a base language and provide use with acquired enough translation without actually having a proper dictionary. Cross Language Translation System – A brief review

Cross-language free text recovery requires either the representation of the query or the representation of the document (or both) be translated so that the two representations are compatible. When storage is limited / when several languages must be accommodated, translating the query is more convenient than translating each document into every language. Alternatively, a stratagem based on document translation can also permit the translation workload to be performed at indexing time where a useful optimization is achieved when every translation will eventually be examined by several users.

These alternatives and variations on them such as mapping both the queries and the documents into language independent representations and present fundamental tradeoffs that designer’s of cross-language information retrieval systems must consider. At present, the cross-language search capabilities are limited to controlled vocabulary searching of the relatively few collections for which a multilingual thesaurus is available.

In view of the increasingly inter-reliant international trade regime, the arrangement of effective cross-language free text retrieval and responsive creation of suitable translations for the retrieved documents could significantly increase the market for these services. Until lately, the limited accessibility of multilingual test collections has made it complicated to evaluate the efficiency of cross-language recovery systems and nearly unfeasible to directly compare the reported effectiveness of techniques developed by diverse groups.

Cross-language retrieval is an interdisciplinary challenge, based on techniques and resources from information retrieval and natural language processing which has subsequently helped to implement this web based dictionary on the worldwide digital library conferences as well. Cross language independency It is the ability of a code to interact with code that is written using a different programming language. It is also known as language interoperability which is the ability to exchange and use information (usually in a large heterogeneous network made up of several local area networks).

It can help maximize code use again and advance the efficiency of the development process. The developers employ a wide variety of tools and technologies each of which might support different features and types, but it has traditionally been complex to guarantee cross language independency or language interoperability. With the growing use of distributed systems, language independency or interoperability is a major concern to system developers. The troubles of interoperability have been around for many years.

A number of standards and architectures have been developed to address some of these issues successfully. .NET is a framework developed by Microsoft intended to support the language independency or interoperability. This research paper embodies the language interoperability competence of the . NET Framework along with its internal architecture. It also describes several other software programs that can be employed along with the core component of . NET framework and facilitates the language interoperability or cross language independency.

WordNet in web based applications WordNet is a semantic lexicon for the English language. It groups English words into sets of synonyms called “synsets” that provides short, universal definitions, and records for the various semantic relations between these synonyms sets. The purpose of WordNet is double: to produce a combination of dictionary and thesaurus that is more automatically usable, and to maintain automatic text analysis and artificial intelligence applications. The resulting network of meaningfully related words and concepts can be navigated with the browser.

The database and software tools have been released under a BSD style license and it can be downloaded and used freely for this research. Neural Network advancement on web based dictionary An ANN is configured for a specific application, such as pattern recognition or data classification, through a learning process as used in this research on web based dictionary. An artificial neural network involves a network of simple processing elements which can display complex global behavior. It is determined by the connections between the processing elements and element parameters.

In a neural network model, simple nodes (called variously “neurons”, “neurodes”, “PEs” (“processing elements” or “units”) are connected together to form a network of nodes, hence the term “neural network”. While a neural network does not have to be adaptive purpose, its practical use comes with algorithms designed to alter the strength (weights) of the connections in the network to produce a desired signal flow. Neural network simulations appear to be a recent development. Many important advances have been advanced by the use of inexpensive computer emulations like the neural network system.

Advantages of Neural network system in this research: Neural networks, with their remarkable ability derive their paradigm from the complicated or imprecise data of matter stored in the neurons. This system is used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too difficult to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. A trained neural network is regarded as an “expert” in the category of information it has been given to analyze. This expert can then be used to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer “what if” questions.

It is used for adaptive learning on how to do tasks based on the data given for training or initial experience. It is a self organizational tool that creates its own organization or representation of the information it receives during learning time. Neural networks is a real time operation where all the computations may be carried out in parallel and a special hardware device are being designed and manufactured to take advantage of this capability. Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding is another aspect of the neural system where partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance.

However, some network capabilities may be retained even with major network damage. Neural Network algorithm approach with the web based dictionary Example: The Back-Propagation Algorithm In order to train a neural network to execute some task, the project must be in accordance with the weights of each unit in such a way that the error between the desired output and the actual output is reduced. This process requires that the neural network compute the error derivative of the weights (EW). In other words, it must calculate how the error changes as each weight is increased or decreased slightly.

The back propagation algorithm is the most widely used method for determining the EW. The back-propagation algorithm is easiest to understand if all the units in the network are linear. The algorithm computes every EW by first computing the EA, the rate at which the error changes as the activity level of a unit is altered. For output units, the EA is basically the variation between the actual and the desired output. To compute the EA for a hidden unit in the layer just before the output layer, we first identify all the weights between that hidden unit and the output units to which it is associated.

We then multiply those weights by the EAs of those output units and add the products. This sum equals the EA for the chosen hidden unit. After calculating all the EAs in the hidden layer just before the output layer, we can compute in like fashion the EAs for other layers, moving from layer to layer in a direction opposite to the way activities spread throughout the network. This is what gives back propagation its name. Once the EA has been computed for a unit, it is straight forward to compute the EW for each incoming connection of the unit. The EW is the product of the EA and the activity through the incoming connection.

Before back-propagating, the EA must be converted into the EI, the rate at which the error changes as the total input received by a unit is changed. Neural Networks Practice in Online web based dictionary server Neural networks have broad applicability to real world where internet source tends to be the target to gather information especially on cross translation strategies. In fact, they have already been successfully applied in many industries as sales forecasting, industrial process control, customer research, data validation, risk management, target marketing, etc.

Neural networks are best at identifying patterns or trends in data that are well suited for prediction or forecasting needs including: specific cross translations, recovery of telecommunications from faulty software; interpretation of multi-meaning Chinese words; under sea mine detection; texture analysis; three-dimensional object recognition; hand-written word recognition; and facial recognition. The utility of artificial neural network models is for the reason that can be applied to gather a function from observations and also to use it.

This is particularly useful in the research with cross language translation where the complexity of the data of words and meanings in several languages makes the design of such a function by hand impractical, where as the Neural network ‘simulators’ that are software applications have some form of built-in visualization to monitor the training process. Some simulators also visualize the physical structure of the neural network. Widely used artificial neural network simulators are the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS), Emergent and JavaNNS. Neural networks contribute a lot to the computer world.

Their ability to learn by example makes them very flexible and powerful. Moreover there is no need to devise an algorithm in order to perform a specific task where there is no need to understand the internal mechanisms of that task. They are also very well suited for real time systems because of their fast response and computational times which are due to their parallel architecture. Neural networks also contribute to other areas of research such as neurology and psychology. They are regularly used to model parts of living organisms and to investigate the internal mechanisms of the brain.

Perhaps the most exciting feature of neural networks is the likelihood that some day ‘conscious’ networks might be created. There are a number of scientists arguing that consciousness is a ‘mechanical’ property and that ‘conscious’ neural networks are a realistic possibility. Finally, with the Neural networks system in this research, it was deduced that even though neural networks have a huge potential the best of its applications can be oriented with the web based cross language dictionary through their integration with an algorithm into computing for translation.

Software Programs used with the web based dictionary research Visual Studio 2008 and the . NET Framework 3. 5 The Microsoft Visual Studio development system is a suitable development tool designed to aid software developers to face complex challenges and create innovative solutions. Visual Studio’s role is to improve the process of development and make the work of achieving breakthroughs easier and more satisfying. It is very productive in this project by continually delivering better ways for cross language translations with less energy and with ease from other software.

The Microsoft Visual Studio is very efficient form of code editors, IntelliSense, Wizards, and multiple coding languages in one integrated development environment (IDE) to high-tech applications in life-cycle management. New versions of Visual Studio keep bringing innovative tools to help developers focus on solving problems without wasting time. With Visual Studio, software developers gain from an integrated product experience that spans tools, servers, and services. Visual Studio products work well together with other Microsoft software, such as Microsoft server products and the Microsoft Office system.

Visual Studio offers a comprehensive choice of tools for all phases of software development & development, testing, deployment, integration, and management. Every kind of software developer from the novice to the skilled professional can use the Visual Studio because it is engineered to support the development across all types of devices such as PCs, servers, the Web, and mobile devices. Visual Studio is the most reliable tool that is engineered and tested to be always dependable, secure, interoperable, and compatible.

Visual Studio offers an unparalleled combination of security features, scalability, and interoperability. Although Visual Studio always incorporates forward-thinking features, it is designed to ensure backward-compatibility everywhere possible. Visual Studio and the Microsoft Application Platform – The Microsoft Application Platform is a set of technology capabilities, core products, and best practice guidance focused on helping IT and development departments partner with the business to maximize opportunity.

As one of the core products of the Microsoft Application Platform, Visual Studio helps to drive the right business efficiencies, customer connections, and value-added services by providing a single, fully integrated development environment for all types of development, including Microsoft Windows, Microsoft Office, Web, and mobile applications. VS 2008 Multi-Targeting Support VS 2008 enables to build applications that target multiple versions of the . NET Framework. This means you can use VS 2008 to open, edit and build existing .

NET 2. 0 and ASP. NET 2. 0 applications (including ASP. NET 2. 0 applications using ASP. NET AJAX 1. 0), and continue to deploy these application on . NET 2. 0 machines. You can learn more about how this works from my blog post here: Microsoft . NET Framework This software component is a part of Microsoft Windows operating systems and it has a large library of pre-coded solutions to common program requirements, and manages the execution of programs written particularly for the framework. The .

NET Framework is a key Microsoft contribution, and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. The pre-coded solutions that outline the framework’s Base Class Library encompass a wide range of programming requirements in areas including: cross language translation, user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application growth, numeric algorithms, and network communications. The class library is used by programmers who combine it with their own code to produce applications. Programs written for the .

NET Framework executed in a software environment manages the program’s runtime necessities. This runtime environment, which is also a part of the . NET Framework, is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine, so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the particular CPU that will implement the program. The CLR also provides other significant services such as security mechanisms, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together compose the . NET Framework. The .

NET Framework is included with Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, and can be installed on some older versions of Windows. NET Framework 1. 1 This is the first major . NET Framework upgrade. It is accessible on its own as a redistributable package or in a software development kit that was published on 3rd April 2003. It is also part of the second release of Microsoft Visual Studio . NET (released as Visual Studio . NET 2003). This is the first version of the . NET Framework to be included as part of the Windows operating system, shipping with Windows Server 2003.

NET Framework 3. 5 Version 3. 5 of the . NET Framework was authoritatively released to manufacturing (RTM) on November 19, 2007. As with . NET Framework 3. 0, version 3. 5 applies the CLR of version 2. 0. In addition, it installs . NET Framework 2. 0 SP1, which adds some methods and properties to the BCL classes in version 2. 0 which are essential for version 3. 5 features such as Language Integrated Query (LINQ). However these changes do not affect applications written for version 2. 0. As with earlier versions, a new . NET Compact Framework 3.

5 was released in tandem with this revision in order to give support for additional features on Windows Mobile and Windows Embedded CE devices. The source code of the Base Class Library in this version has been partially released under Microsoft Reference License. .NET Framework 3. 5 builds incrementally on the new features added in . NET Framework 3. 0. For example, feature sets in Windows Workflow Foundation (WF), Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and Windows CardSpace. In addition, . NET Framework 3.

5 consists of a number of new features in several technology areas which have been added as new assemblies to avoid breaking changes. They are as follows; Deep integration of Language Integrated Query (LINQ) and data awareness which will let to write code written in LINQ-enabled languages to filter, enumerate, and produce projections of several types of SQL data, collections, XML, and DataSets by means of the same syntax. ASP. NET AJAX 3. 5 lets you craft more resourceful, more interactive and highly-personalized Web experiences that work transversely with almost all the most popular browsers.

The New Web protocol sustain for building WCF services adding AJAX, JSON, REST, POX, RSS, ATOM, and several new WS-* standards. Summary of changes in version 3. 5 NET Framework 3. 5 has the modifications of New language features in C# 3. 0 and VB. NET 9. 0 compiler, it adds support for expression trees and lambda methods, various extension methods, anonymous types with static type inference, Language Integrated Query (LINQ) along with its various providers, LINQ to Objects, LINQ to XML, LINQ to SQL, Paging support for ADO. NET, ADO.

NET synchronization API to synchronize local caches and server side data stores, Asynchronous network I/O API, Peer-to-peer networking stack, including a managed PNRP resolver, Managed wrappers for WMI and Active Directory APIs, Enhanced WCF and WF runtimes, which let WCF work with POX and JSON data, and also expose WF workflows as WCF services, Support for HTTP pipelining and syndication feeds, ASP. NET AJAX is included New System. CodeDom namespace. ASP . NET ASP. NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can apply to make dynamic web sites, web applications and web services.

It is part of Microsoft’s . NET platform and is the successor to Microsoft’s Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP. NET is built on the Common Language Runtime, allowing programmers to write ASP. NET code using any Microsoft . NET language. ASPX FILE format ASPX is an html file format that is used to make Webform pages in the jargon called programming. This ASPX file usually contains static HTML or XHTML markup, as well as markup defining Web Controls and Web User Controls where the developers place all the necessary static and dynamic content for the web page.

Additionally, dynamic code which runs on the server can be placed in a page within a block <% — dynamic code — %> which is like the other web development technologies such as PHP, JSP, and ASP, but this practice is usually frowned upon by Microsoft except for the purposes of data binding since it requires more calls when interpreting the page. ASPX is suggested by Microsoft for dealing with dynamic program code to use the code-behind model, which places this code in a distinct file or in a specifically designated script tag.

Code behind these files are typically named something to the effect of MyPage. aspx. cs or MyPage. aspx. vb based on the ASPX file name (this practice is automatic in Microsoft Visual Studio and other IDEs). By means of this style of programming, the developer writes code to respond to several events, like the page being loaded, or a control being clicked, rather than a procedural walk through the document. ASP. NET Web Applications (ASPX) ASP. NET Web applications are managed code applications that have a tendency to be built as a thin client.

For instance in this project, a browser wants to know the cross language translational meaning of an English word to German language, in this case the server platform performs the translation processing, application navigation, and generates the user friendly way of accession. In this scenario, the vast majority of the processing is being done on the server platform and also most important that applications are further analyzed for scalability issues. ASP. NET Threading Settings and High Latency Workloads

If an application accesses slow resources, like a mainframe doing large, complicated queries, the threads of the ASP. NET subsystem can catch blocked and especially for a busy application ASP. NET can run out of threads. When all the ASP. NET threads are blocked, performance is blocked, as there is no ability for ASP. NET to pick up new work. The work gets queued until other requests complete, and the condition ends up affecting user response times. It is feasible to override the number of threads ASP. NET is using to process requirements.

The parameter that is found in the ASP. NET configuration system can be changed at the core of the configuration system (the machine. config file), or particularly for the one case of the application (the Web. config file in the virtual directory of the application). ASP. NET Applications and Queuing ASP. NET requests are queued in Windows Server 2003 when the pipeline gets complicated but this becomes useful to understand performance tuning changes such as the HTTP requests that come in off the network and are received by HTTP.

sys. After observing this request, HTTP. sys places the request in a queue for an application pool and then the worker process service the application pool by choosing the request and makes a decision on what type of processing environment that request wants to be implemented. For ASP. NET Web applications, the worker process hands them to the ASP. NET handler whereby it is placed on a queue and ASP. NET threads pick up individual requests and process them. ASP. NET Web Services (ASMX) with Web based Dictionary

Rich client devices such as cell phones, PocketPCs, tablet devices, etc. have the ability to run rich applications, which communicate over public networks, using a Web service style of application integration. With this in mind, this project module was designed connecting Web service over cross language translations by tracing the network packets associated with a Web service request over a physical network, and compare it to a standard ASPX Web application request made by a browser and imply the best. Application pool

An application pool is a combination of one or more URLs supplied by one or more worker processes. An application pool matches to one request queue contained in HTTP. sys and one or more worker processes. An application pool serves requirements for one or more unique Web based applications. These applications (web based online dictionary) are assigned to the application pool based on their URL. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) AJAX is a group of inter-related web advanced technique used for generating interactive web applications.

The chief characteristic feature of AJAX is its increased responsiveness and the interactivity of web pages are achieved by exchanging small amounts of data with the server ‘behind the scenes’ so that whole web pages need not have to be reloaded each time when there is a need to fetch data from the server. AJAX is projected to increase the web page’s interactivity, speed, functionality and usability. AJAX is a cross-platform technique usable on many different operating systems, computer architectures, and web browsers as it is based on open standards such as JavaScript and the DOM.

There are free and open source implementations of suitable frameworks and libraries. AJAX is asynchronous and the extra data is requested from the server and loaded in the setting without interfering with the display and behavior of the accessible page. AJAX function calls are usually made with the JavaScript scripting language. Data is retrieved using the XMLHttpRequest object that is obtainable from scripting languages run in modern browsers or alternatively through the use of Remote Scripting in browsers that do not support XMLHttpRequest. In any case, it is not required that the asynchronous content be formatted in XML.

Visual C# C# is a simple, type-safe, object oriented, general-purpose programming language. Visual C# provides code-focused developers with powerful tools and language support to build rich, associated web and client applications on the . NET Framework. MS SQL 2005 database for WordNet and dictionary data Microsoft SQL 2005 and ASP. NET 2. 0 Hosting When merging SQL Server 2005 and ASP. NET 2. 0, we achieve an affordable enterprise-level solution that delivers security, scalability, and availability for your enterprise data and analytical applications.

SQL 2005 Data Management and Solutions A novel Management Studio and combination with Visual Studio 2005 helps to build and operate applications faster and more efficiently. The MS SQL 2005 database can be easily connected with the new SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Server Management Studio Express or the Database Explorer Tools with Visual Studio and Visual Web Developer Express. The highest performance, availability and security to run these most demanding applications is used for native data encryption, secure default settings, and password policy enforc

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